Analyze the harsh living environment of the Permian and Triassic periods, and what impact did it have on the fauna at that time?
Preface: The Permian and Triassic periods were transitional periods between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic epochs, lasting more than 100 million years. During this period, the Earth experienced a series of environmental and climate changes.
The distribution of land on Earth is relatively scattered, but by the Triassic period, the continents began to gather northward, gradually forming a supercontinent "Stalagmite Earth".
During the Permian period, sea levels rose, forming some large-scale shallow sea basins, while during the Triassic period, land gathered to form supercontinents, sea levels fell, and ocean circulation changed.
During this period, volcanic activity on the earth was relatively frequent, causing a large number of volcanic eruptions and magma intrusion, which had an impact on the earth's environment and climate.
The Permian Ice Age, a global glacial event occurred in the early Permian, which made the climate cold and dry, leading to the extinction of a large number of organisms.
During the Late Permian and Early Triassic, the Earth's climate gradually became warmer and wetter, and rainfall increased, forming large-scale tropical rainforests, and the biological diversity of this period was further diversified.
By the late Triassic, land accumulation and sea level decline aridified the interior of the continent and grasslands and deserts began to form.
In general, the Permian and Triassic periods were periods of great significance for the Earth's environment and climate change, and these changes had a profound impact on biological evolution and the formation and change of ecosystems.
The Permian and Triassic were important periods of biological evolution on Earth, experiencing the rise and fall of many fauna.
The Permian was a boom period for reptiles, with species similar to modern crocodiles, turtles, lizards, etc., and a large number of nematode animals, the most representative of which is the early invertebrate "Carnico".
In the late Permian, some reptiles adapted to marine life, such as sea turtles and finned dragons, appeared.
The Triassic period was the rise of dinosaurs, and many dinosaur species appeared, such as Archaeopteryx, sauropods and so on.
During the Triassic period, mammals began to appear, mainly some primitive small mammals, such as shrews, rabbits, etc. The species of reptiles are very rich, such as the diforamina, pterosaurs, crocodiles, etc.
In general, the changes in the fauna of the Permian and Triassic are very rich, and they are an important period of biological evolution from the Paleozoic to the Mesozoic era, and these typical representatives are also of great significance to today's ecological environment and biodiversity research.
In the Permian fauna, Carnicoia is the earliest invertebrate and one of the most representative species of nematode animals.
The suborder Prodontidae is a group of humanoids that emerged in the mid-Permian period, with large, strong jaws and sharp teeth.
In addition, there is another animal, the finned dragon, which is a marine reptile that appeared in the late Permian, with a streamlined body and fish-like fins.
Archaeopteryx is the ancestor of dinosaurs that appeared in the early Triassic and is one of the oldest known vertebrates capable of flight.
There are also dragons, dinosaurs that appeared in the middle of the Triassic period, one of the earliest large herbivorous dinosaurs, with long necks and long tails.
In addition, there is Mamenxi dragon, a small marine reptile that appeared in the late Triassic period, a close relative of the fin dragon, with a streamlined body and winged fins.
These typical representatives reflect the changes of biodiversity during the Permian and Triassic periods, and also provide an important reference for people to study the evolution of organisms.
Conway Morris, S. (1998). The crucible of creation: the Burgess Shale and the rise of animals. Oxford University Press.