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Some time ago, a girl launched a topic activity of "wearing Hanfu to travel", which evoked the dream of Hanfu in the hearts of many people.
Many people responded to the event and put on their national costumes when traveling. Through a journey, with our own traditional costumes, the original different beauty, harmoniously intertwined, walking in different corners of the world.
In fact, this "Hanfu revival" is not the first time it has appeared. In the history of China, there was also a pioneer.
This person is none other than Tuoba Hong, Emperor Xiaowen.
Hanfu in history: lost for 300 years
The two eras in Chinese history are known for their chaos – the Northern and Southern Dynasties.
Five chaos, dynasties change, the world is in chaos. I don't know how much blood and tears were stained on this land, but soon after, a prosperous era was coming.
When Tuoba Hong was three years old, he was canonized as a prince, but when he ascended the throne, he parted ways with his mother. This is the "death system of sons and noble mothers" practiced by the Xianbei people, the purpose of which is to prevent the maternal forces from interfering in state affairs.
Thus, from the age of three, he was raised by his titular grandmother, Empress Dowager Feng.
Empress Dowager Feng is also a well-known figure in history and is known as the first empress of the ages. She is a Han Chinese, with a strong personality, decisive work, and a politician demeanor, which has a great effect on the "Sinicization" after Tuobahong.
When Tuoba Hong succeeded to the throne, the Northern Wei Dynasty had been established for more than a hundred years, but the internal ethnic contradictions were still very fierce. In the final analysis, the number of Xianbei people is too small.
According to historical saying, every time Northern Wei sent troops, it used the Han people as human shields. Man walks forward and is stabbed to death by the enemy; If the Han people retreat, they will be trampled to death by the Xianbei people.
At this time, the Northern Wei Dynasty was in the midst of internal and external strife, and the Han people in the country were rebelling. Tuoba Hong then understood that if the conflict between the two ethnic groups could not be resolved, then the country would have no future.
Tuoba Hong moved the capital to Luoyang in 494, and during this time adopted a series of Sinicization measures:
It is forbidden to wear the clothes of the humble people, and all change into Han clothes;
The use of Xianbei language is strictly prohibited, and only Chinese is allowed (except for officials over 30 years old);
When he changed the surname of the Xianbei people to the Han surname, he also set an example by changing his name from "Tuoba Hong" to "Yuanhong".
Until Yuanhong's "Sinicization" campaign began, almost no one here wore Hanfu anymore.
After thorough sinicization, the Northern Wei Dynasty eased economically and politically, and the great integration of ethnic groups also took a big step forward.
Yuanhong's contribution is not only to revive Hanfu, which has been lost for more than 300 years, but also to continue Chinese traditional culture.
The characteristics of Hanfu in various eras
After the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Hanfu style became popular again.
"Hanfu" is not "Han Dynasty clothing", it is a traditional and representative clothing worn by the Han people. A history of the evolution of Hanfu, in a sense, is also a history of the development of Chinese culture that has become emotional.
Hanfu has a history of more than a thousand years, and the Tang, Song and Ming dynasties are the three most representative dynasties.
Although the women of the Tang Dynasty dressed gracefully, they were not coquettish. The exaggerated to the extreme chest in "Full of Golden Armour" is completely fanciful.
The Tang Dynasty was an era of openness and tolerance, and the aesthetic standards of women were: plump figure, bumpy and convex, wide clothes, when walking, clothes fluttering, fluttering ribbons, looking particularly dashing.
Because the Song Dynasty looked down on northern ethnic groups such as the Khitan, Jurchens, and Dangxiang, in terms of clothing, it reincorporated the clothing of the Han people into its own clothing, and repeatedly demanded that civilians not be allowed to wear the clothes of the Hu people.
In addition, Confucianism flourished in the Song Dynasty, and under the ethical constraints of "saving heavenly reason and eliminating human desires", the people abandoned luxury and advocated simplicity and elegance, thus producing a special "rational beauty".
In sharp contrast to the Song Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty advocated beauty, the Ming Han uniform "upper inherits the Zhou Han, the lower inherits the Tang and Song dynasties", the Ming Dynasty clothing from fabrics, colors to ornaments, are presented in a dazzling way, weaving embroidery technology has reached a peak, with a richer cultural connotation.
In the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu rulers began to propose to the Han people to abolish traditional clothing and abolish traditional ritual religion, so that the traditional clothing of the Yellow Emperor era disappeared completely.
However, Hanfu has maintained its unique charm for thousands of years, which is irresistible. Many Qing emperors forbade their subjects to wear Han clothes, but they themselves did so quietly in the Forbidden City.
Once, Qianlong put on a Han costume and asked the officials around him: "Do I look like a Han?" ”
Lang Shining's "Ping'an Spring Letter Map" - Yongzheng and Qianlong, two emperors dressed in Chinese costumes
From Hanfu to cheongsam
In the end, Hanfu became the qipao, the predecessor of the qipao was the Manchus, and the traditional qipao only appeared in the twenties of the twentieth century.
In the early Republic of China, with the pursuit of ideological independence and the liberation of women's rights by advanced women, the traditional Chinese robe produced a cheongsam characterized by spaciousness, elegance, simplicity and simplicity on the basis of absorbing Western clothing styles.
After the 20s, the government of the Republic of China established it as a national uniform in 1929 and designated it as a traditional Chinese costume, thus bringing it into a glorious era in China.
The ancient costumes of each era have their own characteristics, and over time, they will get better and better. Who dresses the most beautifully and who wears the most beautifully, we can't say for sure, because that may be a piece of history.
However, China's strength is getting stronger and stronger, and Chinese elements have been widely recognized. As clothing with national characteristics, Hanfu, qipao and other costumes are also becoming increasingly popular.
Which dynasty's Hanfu do you like the most? Please let me know in the comments section