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Hearing the name Zhang Zuolin must be familiar to everyone, as the leader of the Northeast Fengjian during the warlord chaotic period, he was known as the "King of the Northeast". At that time, when the Japanese Kwantung Army was stationed outside Mukden City, it often harassed the defenders in the city, and Zhang Zuolin, as the commander-in-chief of the navy, army and air force, chose to endure it again and again in order not to harm the people. Why was such a marshal who thought about the people being branded a "pro-Japanese" in the future?
Zhang Zuolin made a fortune
Zhang Zuolin has been poor since childhood, but he is very eager for knowledge and admires these literary and crepe readers from the bottom of his heart. When he was twelve or thirteen years old, this bitter child ran to Yangjingzhen, far from home, to eavesdrop on his husband's lessons. Mr. Yang not only did not drive Zhang Zuolin away, but also let him sit down and listen to his lectures for free, which lasted for three months.
Evening Sunny's private school
But because of the turbulent situation, Zhang Zuolin could not continue to study, so he hurriedly bid farewell to his mentor. In 1888, his father was beaten to death because of his addiction to gambling, and he and his second brother went to take revenge, but accidentally killed a gangster. Soon the second brother was taken away by the military police, and he escaped because of his young age, and fled with his mother and young sister to the place where his grandfather lived.
At that time, Zhang Zuolin sold baked cakes for a living, and later went to learn some carpenter skills, and then was introduced to learn veterinary medicine.
It was not until the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1985 that he took another path, he found Song Qing's troops, joined the army without thinking, because of his brave and good fighting, and was not long promoted to cavalry sentry.
Evening clear military police photo
In 1895, Zhang Zuolin, who had been a soldier for a year, had to return to his hometown to continue his old practice as a veterinarian because of the defeat of the Qing army, and in the same year, he married Zhao Chungui, the daughter of a landlord in his maternal grandfather's hometown. Through his father-in-law's connections, Zhang Zuolin accumulated a lot of contacts, but at that time, everyone was in danger, and bandits and warlord government forces fought each other.
In order to protect the family, he went up the mountain on the recommendation of Feng Delin and has since become a bandit under Dong Dahu. After becoming a good man in the green forest, Zhang Zuolin knew that these people could not become a big climate, and his ambition was by no means more than that. As the so-called times create heroes, to really ascend to a high position, in addition to extraordinary strategy and courage, you also need certain speculative skills.
Zhang Zuolin knew his way well, he always wanted to be recruited by the Qing government, but he had no way out. At this time, I received a piece of intelligence that General Sheng Jing's family would pass by this place in the near future. Zhang Zuolin rolled his eyes, and he was worried that he didn't have a chance to send this to the door. Immediately gathered the people and horses to go down the mountain the next day and rob all the people, do you think he will use his family to blackmail the Shengjing general Zeng Qi?
Shengjing General Zeng Qi
He did the opposite, not only did not embarrass these female dependents, but served them with good food and drink, and arranged a special upper room for Zeng Qi's wife.
Zhang Zuolin personally did the matter of delivering the meal, because he wanted to use this opportunity to get close to Zeng Qi's wife. He reluctantly revealed that he was not willing to go up the mountain, but was forced by the world. The subordinates accompanying him saw that Zhang Zuolin did not look like a demon and spoke softly, so he quickly said that you robbed Zeng Qi's family.
Zhang Zuolin pretended to be shocked when he heard this, and plopped down on his knees to make amends to Mrs. Zeng Qi. Mrs. Zeng saw that Zhang Zuolin was not like an ordinary person, no matter how he looked and talked, he could not see that he was a bandit, and after that, she helped him introduce Zeng Qi to prepare for recruitment. In 1902, he was recruited by the Qing government and became a patrol police pipe band (equivalent to a battalion commander).
Zhang Zuolin when he was young
Since then, his career has been smooth, his position has become higher and higher, and he is getting closer and closer to his dream of unifying the country. Zhang Zuolin knew that Zhang Xiluan, the general manager of the Fengtian Patrol Office, loved BMW, so he gave him a good horse with a huge amount of money, and also took the opportunity to recognize Zhang Xiluan as his righteous father, and saddled up every day to do things for Zhang Xiluan.
When Zhang Xiluan left Mukden, he also sent 250 cavalry to escort him all the way, and explained that he must protect the safety of his righteous father. Such intentions made Zhang Xiluan very satisfied with him, and it didn't take long for him to be promoted to the commander of the patrol battalion (equivalent to the commander of the regiment).
In 1914, Zhang Zuolin's righteous father Zhang Xiluan was appointed by Yuan Shikai as the commander-in-chief of the three eastern provinces, and Zhang Zuolin has always coveted this position, thinking that after Zhang Xiluan was transferred, this position should be his turn. However, he did not expect that Yuan Shikai actually appointed his henchman Duan Zhigui as the Fengtian Inspector, which was very bad for Zhang Zuolin.
Yuan Shikai's henchman Duan Zhigui
At that time, he was already the commander of the 27th Division and was awarded the rank of lieutenant general by Yuan Shikai, but one of Zhang Zuolin's major characteristics was that he "couldn't sit still." From the beginning, his ambition was to unify the three northeastern provinces and even the whole country, so in 1916, Zhang Zuolin saw that the time was ripe to expel Duan Zhigui from Mukden, and preached the theory of "serving the people and serving the people", which caused storms in the city.
After Yuan Shikai's death, Li Yuanhong came to power and directly appointed Zhang Zuolin as the overseer of Fengtian and governor of the province, but this appointment also made Feng Delin very unhappy. In terms of seniority and strength, Feng Delin was above Zhang Zuolin, so the two brothers directly broke up, and Feng Delin ran to participate in Zhang Xun's restoration.
Originally, Zhang Zuolin thought that if the brothers were harmonious, they could sit together in the three eastern provinces, but Feng Delin's actions caused a subtle change in Zhang Zuolin's psychology. He took the opportunity to seize the military power of Feng Delin's 28th Division and firmly held the second largest force in Mukden in his hands, and since then the military and government of Mukden have been completely unified.
Photo of Zhang Zuolin when he was the governor of the Overseer
Why do modern historians have mixed evaluations of Zhang Zuolin? Because he did give some inhuman orders. When the May Fourth Movement broke out in 1919, students in the three eastern provinces took to the streets to protest the government's inaction, and Zhang Zuolin chose to stand on the side of the government and suppress the patriotic students by force.
After Zhang Zuolin entered Beijing, he personally served as the so-called "commander of the Red Army" and issued a public announcement to "propagate the Chihua, advocate communism, and impose the death penalty without distinction and obedience." Zhang Zuolin set his sights on Li Dazhao early and sent people to keep an eye on his whereabouts.
Li Dazhao knew that Beijing was already in dire straits, so he quickly transferred his students and comrades-in-arms, while he and his family stayed. The former comrade-in-arms looked at Li Dazhao with tears in his eyes, hoping to transfer together, but his husband said: "I can't leave, if I go, who will do the things in Beijing?" ”
The great Mr. Li Dazhao
Soon, Zhang Zuolin's men arrested Li Dazhao, and under Chiang Kai-shek's secret telegram, Zhang Zuolin was hanged for "violating the provisions of Article 2, Item 7 of the Army's Criminal Regulations, intending to disturb public order, subvert the government, civil unrest, and rebellion."
Executed together with 20 other revolutionary martyrs, none of them bowed their heads on the gallows, and although everyone dragged their tired and devastated bodies, they still held their heads high, which was the integrity of a revolutionary! No matter what good things Zhang Zuolin did in the future, this history has been written down for him.
Is Zhang Zuolin good or bad?
Being so cruel to his compatriots shows that Zhang Zuolin only has power and interests in his heart, so how is this Zhang Overseer, who is also a hero and a thief, and also a good and evil, "pro-Japanese"?
A group photo of Zhang Zuolin and Japanese Minister Kenkichi Fangzawa
Zhang Zuolin has always maintained close but complex contacts with the Japanese side, and he himself hired the Japanese aristocrat Takeo Kikuchi as a military adviser at great expense, and also wanted to use his identity to understand the actions of the Japanese government in northeast China.
In order to further develop his own power, Zhang Zuolin gradually moved closer to the Japanese side, hoping to get their support to make his position as the "King of the Northeast" more stable. Japan has always coveted the fertile and rich land of the northeast, and more importantly, it has abundant coal resources, so the two sides hit it off.
Japan has been providing Zhang Zuolin with a large amount of weapons and equipment, helping him drive away the former Fengtian overseer Duan Zhigui, and also appointed his close confidant Sun Liechen as the overseer of Jilin and his son-in-law Bao Guiqing as the overseer of Heilongjiang, which is completely stable in the entire three eastern provinces.
Zhang Zuolin was the sixth oldest among his brothers, Sun Liechen
In exchange for benefits, Zhang Zuolin gave Japan the right to build the Northeast Railway, signed the "Manchu-Mongolia New Five Roads Secret Treaty", and also handed over a large number of coal mining rights and land purchase rights to Japan. In the eyes of many people, Zhang Zuolin is actually not like a leader, but like a businessman. He was only interested in profit, and cooperated with the hypocritical Japan for the sake of profit.
In fact, Zhang Zuolin did not see Japan's ambitions, Zhang Zuolin's son Zhang Xueliang recalled in a later interview: "My father was not worried about this, because he had a heavy army at that time, and he always thought that Japan did not dare to do excessive things." Zhang Zuolin was sure to keep Japan in his hands, and with the resources of the northeast, he could control Japan's activities at will.
However, the people's hearts are not enough to swallow the elephant, Japan's motives from the beginning are not pure, Zhang Zuolin's interests to the Japanese side can only fill the country's temporary appetite, and Japan slowly forced Zhang Zuolin to do some traitorous things for glory. Although Zhang Zuolin was born in a reckless background, he was indeed a "patriotic general" in the face of Japan.
Young Marshal Zhang Xueliang
Although he gave Japan the right to build the railways, he also obstructed the construction in many ways, so only one of the five railways originally planned was built. Xiao Ri fought with the support of the government to run amok in Fengtian City, and even hacked the people of Mukden to death on the street, everyone looked at the dead compatriots in front of them in anger, and the drunken little day was still shouting arrogantly.
Zhang Zuolin was furious when he learned of this, and immediately led troops to rush into the Japanese embassy to demand compensation, and the Japanese officer led by Zhang Zuolin said that according to the custom, one person died and paid 500 taels of silver.
Zhang Zuolin took the silver and left, and after handing the money to the victim's family, he went directly to the street and killed three Japanese soldiers. Xiao Ri came to the door imposing and asked for an explanation, but Zhang Zuolin threw 1,500 taels of silver on the ground and said, "Just do things according to your customs", and finally Xiao Ri had to go away in anger.
Rong Ma for a lifetime
On June 3, 1928, Zhang Zuolin was seriously injured by explosives buried by the Japanese army on his way back to Mukden by train from Beijing, and unfortunately died on the way back to Shenyang.
The Huanggutun Railway blown up by the Japanese army
Zhang Zuolin had a mixed reputation in his life, and Yan Huiqing, a diplomat during the Republic of China, said of him: "As for his meritorious crimes against the country, it is difficult to judge for a while, so he has to leave it to the fair judgment of historians." His education was very limited, and it was entirely based on his natural wisdom and ingenuity that led to his leadership position before his death. He was able to maintain local order under the extreme aggression of the Japanese warlords in the three eastern provinces, and after several years, his ability to cope was beyond the reach of ordinary warriors. As for his weaknesses, they must be shared by ordinary Chinese martial artists, and Zhang cannot be harshly criticized individually."
It is not easy to survive in turbulent times, let alone maintain law and order in a place from the flames of war. Zhang Xueliang lamented about his father years later: "My father is a hero and has no strategy."