The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years

The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years

I love history

2024-05-28 20:35Posted in Guangdong History Creators

Sima Qian wrote an extremely dramatic and satirical plot in the "Records of the Historian":

In 338 BC, after the death of Qin Xiaogong, a group of old nobles denounced Shang Ying's intention to rebel. The newly succeeded monarch, King Qin Huiwen, sent people to arrest Shang Ying, who fled to the border of Qin overnight, preparing to stay at a hotel.

The shopkeeper didn't know who the down-and-out fugitive in front of him was, but repeatedly asked him to show his identity before he could stay in the hotel: "The merchant has an order to allow others to stay in the hotel without a license, and the shopkeeper will be sentenced to prison." ”

Shang Ying sighed: "Oops! I can't imagine that my new method has harmed me to such an extent! ”

In the end, Shang Ying, who was cornered, ended up very miserable, some history books say that he was killed and was split by a car to show the public, and some history books say that he was directly sentenced to death by a car split.

Sima Qian said that Shang Ying deserved to kill himself by doing this.

For more than 2,000 years, the tragic plight of the reformers has become the greatest curse in history, which cannot be broken.

The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years

▲Shang martingale. Source: Film and television stills


In any era, those who see people accurately and have a poisonous eye are often more likely to succeed.

Shang Ying is this kind of person.

After he was nominally the monarch of the country, he was actually a declining nobleman at best, and he had to be like a wanderer at that time, selling his political opinions with one mouth in exchange for food.

The history books say that he is "not good at learning the name of the penalty", and he admires Li Kui and Wu Qi's changes in the Wei State very much. Around 365 BC, when he was about 30 years old, Shang Ying went to Wei to become a concubine (retainer) of Xiangguo's uncle acne [cuó].

Uncle Acne found out that Shang Ying was a genius, so he took advantage of the fact that King Wei Hui was visiting him and recommended Shang Ying to King Wei Hui, saying that after my death, this young man could take over my position. After hearing this, King Wei Hui was silent. Uncle Gong retreated again and whispered to King Wei Hui, saying that if the king did not use this young man, he must kill him, and he must not be used by other countries. King Wei Hui nodded in agreement.

After King Wei Hui left, Uncle Wei summoned Shang Ying, told him what had just happened, and then said, I am the king before the minister, the public before the private, King Wei Hui is going to kill you, you should run away quickly.

Shang Ying calmly said to Gongsun Acne: "The king can't use the words of the king to appoint his ministers, and can he use the words of the king to kill the ministers?" ”

He did not leave the state of Wei immediately, and King Hui of Wei really did not want to reuse him or kill him.

Although his life was safe, Shang Ying's heart should be sad: nothing saddened him more than being treated as an insignificant little person.

In 361 B.C., after the death of Gongsun Acne, Shang Ying learned that the new monarch of Qin in the west, Qin Xiaocheng, was sincerely seeking talent, so he took Li Kui's "Book of Law" and defected to Qin.

At that time, the Qin State was located in the west, and the Central Plains princes would not play with it, and regarded it as Yidi. Qin Xiaogong is very ambitious, and wants to restore the hegemony of Qin Mugong's period 300 years ago, regain the lost land, and most importantly, let the Central Plains princes afford it. To put it bluntly, Qin Xiaogong wants to change the law and try to be strong, which is also the trend of the whole era, Wei uses Li Kui, Han uses Shen Buharm, and Chu uses Wu Qi, all of which are the same.

From a historical point of view, the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period were one of the most drastic institutional changes in Chinese history. It is not difficult to understand that the military competition between the vassal states is a main line that leads the development of history, and how tragic it is for the weak countries to survive and the strong countries to compete for hegemony. Therefore, how to make the country rich and the army strong has become the theme of the spirit of the times.

After Shang Ying entered Qin, he met Qin Xiaogong four times and stated the way to govern the country:

The first time he talked about Emperor Yao Shun's Dao, Qin Xiaogong almost fell asleep when he heard it;

The second time he talked about the royal road of Yu Tang Wenwu, Qin Xiaogong was still drowsy;

The third time he talked about domineering, Qin Xiaogong cheered up and felt that it was okay;

The fourth time to talk in detail about the art of strengthening the country, Qin Xiaogong was happy, "I don't get tired of talking for a few days".

Although Shang Ying's teacher has the shadow of Confucianism, his preference and main business is Legalism, and he entered Qin with the "Book of Law", but in order to test Qin Xiaogong's faith and determination, he did not hesitate to "fish" many times, and talked about the way of Yao Shunyu Tang Wenwu insincerely, and finally talked about the key point.

In fact, he has long seen what Qin Xiaogong wants, what Qin Xiaogong wants is a set of quick-acting techniques to strengthen the country, you don't tell me about the hundred-year plan, what I want is immediate results.

Coincidentally, I have exactly what you want.

Shang Ying reached a consensus with Qin Xiaogong by casting a long line to catch big fish. The stage is set, just waiting for him to appear.

The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years

▲ Qin Xiaogong. Source: Film and television stills


But for Qin Xiaogong and Shang Ying, they still have common obstacles to face.

Qin Xiaogong's intention is obvious: "Now I want to change the law to govern, and teach the people more politely, I am afraid that the world will discuss me." "I want to change the law and make the Qin State strong, but I'm afraid of the world's criticism. So he was very clever to push Shang Ying to the foreground as a tool for his own change.

Shang Ying adhered to the power given by Qin Xiaogong, and of course he had to withstand all the pressure and criticism that rushed to Qin Xiaogong. This is a contract that the two of them have reached invisibly.

Gan Long and Du Zhi, representatives of the old aristocracy, had a big debate with Shang Ying on "whether the Qin State should change the law". Historically, every time the law reform is preceded, there will be similar debates between opposing sides, but the interesting thing is that the debate is always about "whether to change", not "how to change". As a result, both sides are prone to extremes, and those who do not want to change will lose more, while those who advocate change will often be counterattacked in the end and will lose a lot. It would have been a better game if the debate had focused on "what if", but that was only "what if".

In fact, it was a debate with a definite outcome and a purely symbolic one. Onlookers all know that the law is what Qin Xiaogong wants to change, but the representatives of the old aristocracy are still entangled in this, saying that it can't be changed, it can't be changed. Shang Ying made it very clear that as long as it was a matter of strengthening the country and benefiting the people, there was nothing that could not be changed. His original words were: "The sage can strengthen the country, but he is lawless; Gou can benefit the people, not follow his etiquette. "Who can hit Qin Xiaogong's heart, it is self-evident.

Then there is the "Migration Tree Lixin" that we have been familiar with since childhood. The reform began, in order to convey to the people the country's integrity and the determination to make the order must be carried out, Shang Ying ordered people to erect a piece of wood at the south gate, and whoever moved the wood to the north gate was given a reward of ten gold. No one believed it, and the bounty mentioned fifty. One person had the mentality of giving it a try, and it turned out that he really took a huge bounty.

The world has always emphasized the importance of integrity with the concept of Ximu Lixin, but why did Shang Ying adopt such a boring method to establish integrity? It doesn't cost so much money to move a piece of wood, and what's the point of moving wood from the south gate to the north gate? This is simply like a scene constructed out of thin air by a charlatan, rather than a scene of life or labor that is needed in reality, no wonder there are many onlookers, but almost no hands-on people. Because everyone thinks that this thing itself is absurd.

But this may be Shang Ying's original intention: you don't care if this matter is illogical or not, and don't question it, as long as you do it, you can get benefits beyond your expectations.

The change I want to implement is another scene of "Migration Wood Lixin", where obedient people have candy to eat.

At this point, Shang Ying got the aristocracy through debate, and the commoner class through Lixin, and the curtain of law change opened.

In history, the Shang Dynasty Reform Law was carried out in two times. The main point of the first reform of the law was to implement the Shiwu joint sitting in the household register, which was a precedent for whistleblowing and whistleblowing; Military law was decreed, military merit was rewarded, hereditary status was abolished, and a twentieth rank system was established. The main point of the second reform is that the land is privately owned; Abolish feudalism, establish counties and counties, and reward officials from the Son of Heaven; Unified weights and measures; In order to unify thoughts, clarify laws and regulations, and eliminate the interference of retro thoughts, he ordered the burning of the "Book of Songs", "Shangshu" and the works of the hundred schools of thought.

On the whole, the leading idea of the Shang Dynasty reform comes from Guan Zhong's proposition of "making a hole out of profit", that is, the monarch controls all sources of profit, and controls all the profit opportunities and even survival opportunities of the people.

And this "hole" designed by Shang Ying for the Qin State is the cultivation war. Ordinary people responded to the call of the state, cleared wasteland, planted crops, and actively joined the army to fight, and if they did these two things well, they could receive national rewards, including winning knighthoods and achieving a class jump. Other people who did not work in the field of ploughing warfare, whether nobles, merchants, or travelers, were among the blows and humiliations of the state.

Through this "hole", Shang Ying realized the connection between the change of law and the interests of Qin's participation in the princes' struggle for hegemony: the sufficient food and brave soldiers needed for the war were all available now. In particular, the "Shang Shou Gong" system advocated cutting off the enemy's head on the battlefield to mark merit, and the number of heads killed was used to determine the rank of the knight. This system made the Qin people warthirsty warriors, and as soon as they went to the battlefield, they "took the head on the left and the captive on the right". According to Sima Qian's incomplete statistics, from the Shang Dynasty to the accession of Qin Shi Huang, the Qin army cut off a total of 1.4 million heads of the enemy in all wars.

The flip side of the mobility of the common people through farming and warfare was the blow to the old aristocracy.

The Shang Dynasty first used the military merit system to deprive the clan nobles of their hereditary privileges, and "the clan must not be a subordinate unless it has military merits." The theory of origin is not popular, and everything must be based on military merit. In addition, the method of "abolishing feudalism and establishing counties and counties" was used to strengthen the direct control of the monarch over the localities, and the privilege of the nobles to divide feuds and establish a "state within a state" was abolished. These two points constituted a fatal blow to the nobles of the Qin State, and Shang Ying offended a large number of nobles, "the nobles of the clan who have many grievances".

As a countermeasure, Gongzi Qian and Gongsun Jia, the teachers of the crown prince (later King Huiwen of Qin), instigated the prince to violate the law of Shang Ying. Shang Ying is not easy to mess with, as an "iron-blooded country", in order to ensure the seriousness of the law, he decided to punish Gongzi Qian and Gongsun Jia, one was executed, and the other was executed. After Gongzi Qian was hit, he closed his door for eight years. And this also laid the groundwork for Shang Ying's later tragic death.

The nobility was suppressed, but the commoners were given a promotion path. In a sense, the Shang Dynasty reform was a reform to practice the concept of equality, and the ploughing and warfare system was the imperial examination system of the pre-Qin Dynasty. Although Sima Qian did not like Shang Ying and the Legalists he represented, he still affirmed the reaction of Shang Ying's reform in the "Historical Records": "In the past ten years, the people of Qin have been happy, the road has not been forgotten, there are no thieves in the mountains, and the family is sufficient." The people are brave in public war, cowardly in private fighting, and the countryside is governed. ”

Of course, we need to distinguish that the leap of the civilian class is only a means for Shang Ying to implement the art of strengthening the country, not his original intention. Just as he needed to fight the nobility and ensure the authority of the monarch alone, he also had no good opinion of the common people, and his speech and policies were often filled with the idea of foolishness, and the common people were used and controlled by means of punishment (punishment) and reward (reward). This is one of the reasons why Shang Ying was criticized by later generations.

The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years

▲ Childe piety. Source: Film and television stills


In Shang Ying's reforms, the only thing he ensured was the centralization of monarchical power. Through the institutional arrangement of the monarchical (central) centralized system, the state apparatus of the Qin State was driven, and it rose rapidly in the hegemony of the group of heroes in the second half of the Warring States Period.

Throughout the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, there were two reforms that took effect particularly quickly, one was Fan Li's governance of the Yue State in the late Spring and Autumn Period, and the other was the reform of Shang Ying in the Qin State in the middle of the Warring States Period. It only took about 20 years for both of them to make the backward and poor country they assisted a powerful country.

At that time, the war between the princes for hegemony was in the ascendant, and the effectiveness of their reforms was tested in a timely manner. After the rise of the Yue Kingdom, Goujian, the king of Yue, launched a war to destroy Wu and became the last overlord of the "Spring and Autumn Five Hegemons". After the Shang Dynasty changed the law, the Qin state began to regain lost territory and expand eastward, defeating the Wei state one after another. In the 110 years from the Shang Dynasty to the accession of Qin Shi Huang, Qin fought 65 battles against the Six Kingdoms, 58 of which were complete victories, 147 cities were pulled, and a total of 14 counties were established in the territory captured. Later, although Shang Ying died, Qin Fa did not die, and finally destroyed the Six Kingdoms in the era of King Yingzheng of Qin and established a unified empire.

Li Si said in the "Book of Exhortations to the Guest": "The law of filial piety and public use of business martingale, changing customs, the people are prosperous, the country is rich and strong, the people are happy, the princes are subdued, and they have been the teachers of Chu and Wei, and they have moved thousands of miles to be strong." This shows that the aftermath of the Shang Dynasty reform had a positive impact on the formation of a unified empire and the establishment of an autocratic dynasty until the time of Qin Shi Huang.

Shang Ying himself also realized his youthful ambitions because of this successful change, and the scenery is unique.

Around 340 BCE, Shang Ying used deception in the Battle of Hexi of Qin and Wei to capture his former friend Gongzi [áng], the lord of Wei. After this battle, the Wei State cut the land west of the river to offer Qin to seek peace, and King Wei Hui regretted it, saying that I hate not listening to Gongsun Acne back then.

This battle became a landmark event in the transformation of the power of Qin and Wei. Because of the victory in this battle, Qin Xiaogong sealed Shang Yang in Shang Land, called "Shang Jun", which is the origin of Shang Yang (formerly known as Gongsun Marting) in later generations called "Shang Marting".

In the history of the Qin State, it was rare to tear the soil and seal the marquis, and Shang Yang was the first case. With one person and the marquis worshipped, so far, Shang Ying can be said to be the power of the Qin State.

Crisis looms.

A man named Zhao Liang persuaded Shang Ying to return his fiefdom and retire to the mountains and forests when Shang Ying was at his most popular. According to Zhao Liang, Shang Ying's strong reform in the Qin State attracted jealousy and made too many enemies, so much so that every time he went out, more than a dozen cars followed, and the cars were full of heavily armed guards. Therefore, Zhao Liangcai persuaded Shang Ying to change his course and retreat bravely.

Shang Ying did not listen, he was a typical "power man", superstitious about force, full of confidence in the power in his hands and his own influence in the Qin State.

But his opponents, the old nobles represented by Gongzi Qian and others, are not idle people. After being sentenced to death by Shang Ying, Gongzi Qian did not go out for eight years, waiting for the opportunity, and his forbearance and calmness can be seen.

All this, after the death of Qin Xiaogong in 338 BC, finally came to an end.

"Lü's Spring and Autumn Period" records that when Qin Xiaogong was seriously ill, he intended to be located in Shang Ying, but Shang Ying did not dare to accept it.

After the crown prince succeeded to the throne as the queen of Qin Huiwen, all kinds of gossip attacking Shang Yang began to reach the ears of this new monarch. Fundamentally speaking, during the 20 years of Shang Ying's reform, he did not have a direct conflict with King Qin Huiwen, on the contrary, his measures to strengthen the centralization of monarchical power were beneficial to any monarch who succeeded to the throne, he was a hero of Qin Xiaogong, and he could also become a hero of King Qin Huiwen. King Qin Huiwen's only worry was that Shang Ying had too much power, and he was afraid that he would bully the lord with his ministers. The old nobles who attacked Shang Ying seized this point and slandered King Qin Huiwen: "If the minister is too heavy, the country is in danger, and those who are too close to the left and right are in danger." Today, the women and babies of Qin all say that the law of the Shang monarch and the law of the king of Mo Yan are the main ones of the Shang monarch, and the king is more ministerial. ”

However, at the critical moment when his opponent wanted to kill him, Shang Ying made a fatal mistake - instead of continuing to use iron-fisted methods to suppress opponents, he relented and asked King Qin Huiwen for leave to send his old mother back to his hometown. He may wish to leave the land of right and wrong for a while to quell all kinds of vicious slander.

Childe Qian aimed at this opportunity and made a move. After Shang Ying's return, the prince teacher at that time reported to his student Qin Huiwen that "Shang Jun wants to rebel". "Wanting to rebel", wanting to rebel, there is no established fact, but it is steady and ruthless. Gongzi's trick can be called the originator of "trumped-up" charges in the past dynasties.

King Huiwen of Qin then sent troops to hunt down Shang Ying.

On the other side, Shang Ying, who returned to the Ye land of Wei with his mother, was refused by Ye Ling and was not allowed to enter the country. The reason is that Shang Ying captured Wei Gongzi by deception in the Battle of Hexi two years ago, and completely lost his faith.

Shang Ying had no choice but to return to Qin, knowing that he was being pursued, and began to flee, and then the scene at the beginning of this article occurred. This time he fled, Shang Ying still wanted to run to Wei, but Wei refused to let him enter, for fear that Qin would blame Wei and cause disputes.

According to the analysis of historian Chao Fulin, Shang Ying, who had nowhere to escape, finally returned to his fiefdom and mobilized 780,000 troops under his command to attack the weaker South Korea in an attempt to develop in the western part of Korea. King Huiwen of Qin sent troops to pursue, but Shang Ying's army was defeated and killed in Mianchi (now Sanmenxia, Henan).

There are different records of Shang Ying's death in historical books. Some say that he was torn to death by a car, and some say that he was torn apart by a car after his death, but no matter what, the torture of che splitting shows that the nobles of Qin State hated him to the core. The most famous generation of reformers in the pre-Qin period, after transforming a poor country into a powerful country, he himself ended up in a tragic death, tragic!

The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years

▲King Qin Huiwen. Source: Film and television stills


The praise and disparagement of Shang Yang did not end with his tragic death, and in the more than 2,300 years of history that followed, he was always scolded or remembered in due course.

Some scholars say that the Shang Dynasty theory of statecraft has had a great impact on the Chinese system and civilization, and has influenced Chinese history for more than 2,000 years in the form of the legacy of the Qin State (Qin Dynasty). From the perspective of national construction and its historical influence, no one in the pre-Qin Dynasty could be on the right side of the Shang Dynasty.

After Shang Ying's death, the system he instituted was still pursued for a long time. The people of Qin did not think that Shang Ying was a traitor, but that he was a hero of Qin. During the reign of King Qin Zhao, Fan Sui said that Shang Ying was "righteous and loyal", and Cai Ze also said that it was Shang Ying who made "Qin invincible in the world and established the power of the princes".

Han Feizi, the master of the pre-Qin Legalist family, was named a "saint" by Shang Ying. This is a far cry from what we know about Shang Yang now, but it is not difficult to understand. After all, each school of doctrine will pursue the cattle of its own school, but later Confucianism gained the status of mainstream doctrine, and we naturally identified with the "sage" of the Confucian system, while Shang Ying was remembered by future generations for his cruelty and ruthlessness and self-defeat.

But have we ever wondered which of the commentaries on Shang Yang are true and which are constructed?

The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years

▲ Great Qin Empire. Source: Film and television stills

Sima Qian's comments on Shang Ying had a great influence in later generations. Undoubtedly, he was a rigorous historian, but at the same time he had his own preferences - he was a Confucian disciple and was quite disgusted with Legalism. Therefore, when he wrote a biography for Shang Ying, on the one hand, he affirmed the effectiveness of Shang Ying's reforms, but on the other hand, he had no good impression of Shang Ying personally, saying that he was "talented and mean".

A more typical example comes from Sima Guang. The great historian who wrote the "Zizhi Tongjian" was also a political conservative and strongly opposed the reform of the law by his colleague Wang Anshi. When he was frustrated in the political arena and spent his days compiling the "Zizhi Tongjian", he naturally wanted to use the historical reformers as a tool to insinuate Wang Anshi's reforms. Therefore, the "Zizhi Tongjian" basically inherited the content of the "Historical Records", but deleted all the content of the "Historical Records" praising the Shang Dynasty reform, leaving only the text that belittled the Shang Dynasty.

Shang Ying is a tragic figure, he has personal limitations, but also the limitations of the times, his contempt for the power of the people, and his enthusiasm for harsh punishment and strict laws, can be criticized and reflected. But the key is that his fate after his death can no longer be controlled by himself, and can only rise and fall with history. Whenever the country faced a moment of reform, he would be sacrificed as a symbol.

During the period of Emperor Zhao of the Western Han Dynasty, at the salt and iron conference, the courtiers Sang Hongyang and others and the Confucian scholars gathered from all over the country debated fiercely about whether salt and iron should be monopolized by the state. This was a conference on economic reform that had a great impact in the history of the Western Han Dynasty and even China. Both sides knew that citing historical sources was very helpful for their own arguments, so they both found Shang Ying.

As a reformer, Sang Hongyang strongly admired Shang Ying, saying that Shang Ying changed the law to "collect the tax of Shanze" and make the Qin State strong. On the other hand, the Qin Dynasty said that the Qin Dynasty was short-lived, and it was the Shang Dynasty that changed the law, and we can't learn from it. Sang Hongyang seized the loophole of the opposing side and retorted that more than 100 years after Shang Ying's death, the Qin Dynasty perished, and it had nothing to do with Shang Ying. The reason for Qin's death should be that Qin Shi Huang's father and son ruled the world, "evil ministers arbitrarily judge, justice is not good". Attributing the cause of Qin's death to Shang Ying's reform is equivalent to attributing the cause of Shang's death to Yi Yin's fault, which is absurd both historically and logically.

Just like this salt and iron conference, all dynasties around the reform of the country will use the Shang Dynasty to talk about the law. As mentioned earlier, during Wang Anshi's reforms, Sima Guang belittled Shang Ying by writing history books to express his disdain for the changes implemented at the moment. As the leader of the reform of the law, Wang Anshi cherished Shang Ying, and he wrote a poem saying:

Since ancient times, the people have been driven in faithfulness, and a word is heavy and light.

Today's people can not be Shang Ying, and Shang Yang can make the government must be done.

For 2,300 years, Shang Yang has been a mirror image of the reformers of successive dynasties. But all reformers will respect Shang Ying; Conservatives, without exception, criticize the martingale. As the mainstream ideology of Confucianism, the ideal society it built was in the three generations of antiquity, and in the distant past, after this ideal was tossed by Wang Mang's reform, everyone knew that it was unreliable. Therefore, when it comes to reform in the future, everyone will look for historical resources from the Legalists, especially the Shang Dynasty reforms. This is the main reason why the reformers in history supported Shang Yang and liked to use Shang Yang as a metaphor.

But on the other hand, Confucianism and internal law are the common political forms of traditional China. Outer Confucianism can see people, and internal law has to be hidden. Emphasizing Confucian concepts such as benevolent government and rule by virtue is the face of a dynasty; The use of specific measures such as punishment and reward and "making a hole in profit" is the essence of a dynasty that cannot be said. Therefore, although Shang Yang has always been used, he has always needed to be criticized and criticized, which can show the royal way of a dynasty.

Correspondingly, the reformers who used Shang Yang as a self-metaphor in various eras could not escape the tragic fate of Shang Ying's use and abandonment. From Sang Hongyang being involved in a rebellion case and being killed, to Zhang Juzheng's liquidation by the emperor after his death, almost every dynasty has a "Shang Ying" who saved the empire from peril, and fell into the abyss of personal tragedy after completing his historical mission. This is like the biggest curse in Chinese history, and there is no solution for thousands of years.

The "Shang Ying" of each dynasty are not gentlemen in the traditional sense, but they are people who do things, solve problems, and are willing to admit that they have shortcomings. This is undoubtedly much more majestic than the majority of "hypocrites" who only pick up the moral stick to beat people and have nothing to do with it. There is no need to debate who is the promoter of historical development. As Lu Xun said: "A warrior with shortcomings is a warrior after all, and a perfect fly is just a fly after all." ”

I have read a passage about the symbolization of Shang Ying, and I would like to quote it here as the end of this article:

If the world is governed, he will bear the reputation of harsh government and meanness; If the world is in turmoil, he has become a pioneer for the ministers to follow. The past is gone, Shang Ying's coffin as a historical figure has long been decided, and his personal reputation has gradually become irrelevant to himself and that era.

I hope that the real Shang Yang can be seen by the world, and not be obscured all the time, and I also hope that the reformers of every era will not have to repeat the tragic fate of Shang Ying!


Shang Ying: Annotated Translation of Shang Junshu, translated by Gao Heng, Zhonghua Book Company, 1974

Sima Qian: Historical Records, Zhonghua Book Company, 1982

Liu Xiangjilu: Warring States Policy, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1998

Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian, Zhonghua Book Company, 2009

Yang Kuan: History of the Warring States Period, Shanghai People's Publishing House, 2016

Zheng Liangshu, The Commentary on Shang Ying, Nanjing University Press, 1998

Zhu Li and Duanmu Jiarui, "An Analysis of the Historical Image of Shang Ying", Journal of Xi'an University of Arts and Sciences (Social Science Edition), No. 6, 2011

Chao Fulin, "Examination of the History of Shang Ying", Studies in Chinese History, No. 3, 1994

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  • The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years
  • The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years
  • The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years
  • The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years
  • The biggest curse in Chinese history has been unsolved for thousands of years

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