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The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

author:Litian
The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Question one

Why didn't the captives resist when they were slaughtered?

History buffs have such a question: after the destruction of Nanjing, the Kuomintang prisoners who laid down their arms, group by group were escorted to the slaughter by the Japanese army, they were escorted like a group of obedient lambs, knowing that they were going to be slaughtered, why didn't they resist?

This question bothers many history buffs, but the answer is not complicated for two main reasons:

One of the reasons: the Japanese army is not stupid, when they escort the Kuomintang prisoners to be slaughtered, they will not tell them "we are going to slaughter you", according to the Japanese veterans interviewed in Japan after the war, the Japanese army at that time adopted deceptive methods, for example, the Japanese army will say to the prisoners, we will take you to the concentration camp, take you to the Japanese military camp to eat, take you to the river to take a boat to the Shanghai prisoner camp...... And so on, the Japanese army made up this kind of excuse, so in fact, the prisoners of war of the Kuomintang troops who were escorted to the massacre did not know that they were taken to slaughter, but when the black hole of the machine gun was placed in front of them, they finally woke up, and it was too late.

Reason 2: In fact, in the days when the city of Nanjing was broken, the entire city of Nanjing was in a situation of running out of food, and the Japanese army's own rations were not enough to eat at that time, so most of the Kuomintang prisoners were starving, and it was normal to not be able to eat for two or three days, so when the muzzle of the machine gun in the black hole was placed in front of them, they did not eat for several days, and even if they wanted to resist, they had no strength. (Refer to the recollection testimony of the surviving Kuomintang veteran Tang Spectrum)

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Question two

Why did the Japanese attack Nanjing?

When Japan's war of aggression against China began in July 1937 and spread to Shanghai, the Japanese military headquarters designated "Suzhou-Jiaxing" as the "control line" out of prudence, because the Japanese army was worried that the Soviet Union would send troops from the northeast and cause Japan to fight on both the north and the south, which would be unfavorable to Japan.

However, in November, the invading Japanese army on the front line was red-eyed, believing that it was necessary to take advantage of the war situation in favor of the Japanese army, capture Nanjing in one fell swoop, force the Nationalist Government to surrender, and sign an alliance under the city, so as to "solve the Japanese-Chinese incident in one fell swoop."

The Japanese army's so-called "settlement of the Japanese-Chinese incident in one fell swoop" specifically refers to forcing the Nationalist Government to recognize the puppet state of Manchukuo and the independence of North China...... and a series of demands of an aggressive nature.

The high-ranking Japanese soldiers on the front line who held this view included Yanagawa Heisuke, Matsui Ishine and others.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Matsui Ishine

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Heisuke Yanagawa

At the instigation of the Japanese commanders on the front, the Japanese army headquarters officially ordered a general attack on Nanjing on December 1.

Question 3

Why didn't the West care so much about Japan's invasion of China?

Japan began to attack China in July and fought for five months in December to defend Nanjing, and although there were also media reports in the Western society, in fact, at that time, the Western society was not too concerned about Japan's war of aggression against China, and most of them adopted a bystander mentality.

Why is that? The answer is this:

Westerners didn't care much about Japan's invasion of China at that time, the reasons were complicated, first of all, Westerners didn't think that this war would last for eight years, and those Westerners actually thought that it was just a military conflict that was not uncommon in those days, and it might end in a few weeks, so Westerners didn't think it was a big deal at that time.

Secondly, there is another very important reason: the most important thing that Westerners were most concerned about at that time was the Spanish Civil War.

Yes, in July 1936, the Spanish Civil War broke out, and then it was fought until April 1939, so when Japan invaded China in full swing (in the second half of 1937), it was actually the time when the Spanish Civil War was fought fiercely.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

The Spanish Civil War stole the attention of Westerners from Japan's war of aggression against China

The Spanish Civil War was ostensibly a civil war in Spain, but in fact, both sides had overseas backs, involving the Soviet Union, Mexico, Italy, Portugal, Germany and other countries, so the Spanish Civil War was a war that could be extended to the entire Western world from the perspective of Westerners at that time. After all, the Spanish Civil War broke out in Europe and was the doorstep of Westerners, while in the far East, Japan used force against China, although Westerners also paid attention, but obviously the attention was far less than that of the Spanish Civil War.

This incident also turned a corner to enlighten us: In fact, when we look at the problem, change the angle and change the position, we can often see it more accurately. Another point, we history lovers must remember: the focus of attention of Westerners is always in the European and American world, not in Asia, for example, readers will always pay the most attention to your own family and relatives and friends, not my old Feng's family.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Question 4

Why did the Kuomintang army hold on to Nanjing?

We have many history buffs who criticize the Chiang Kai-shek clique for sticking to Nanjing and being stupid, but in fact, the Chiang Kai-shek clique was in the environment at that time, and there were indeed many difficulties in handling it.

First of all, from a political point of view, Nanjing, as the capital of the Republic of China at that time, did not defend at all, did not resist at all, and gave up easily, which was a typical "political incorrectness".

Second, from a military point of view, holding Nanjing to the point of view is conducive to covering the retreat of large units of the Kuomintang army, the retreat of party and government organs in East and Central China, and the relocation of important factories and facilities.

Moreover, from a diplomatic point of view, at that time, the German ambassador to China, Oskar Paul Trautmann, was mediating back and forth between Japan and the Republic of China, passing on conditions and coordinating negotiations.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

I'm sorry that this illustration was used incorrectly, not by this person

At that time, the Nationalist Government asked for help everywhere in the international community, the most prominent of which was to seek material aid and military aid from the Soviet Union, so if Nanjing was not defended, the international community would underestimate China's determination to resist, and international assistance might not be counted on.

To sum up, therefore, if Nanjing is not defended, it is actually very disadvantageous to withdraw directly, but it is also difficult to defend Nanjing, and the cost is large, so the Nationalist Government was in a dilemma at that time, and later decided to defend it, which is the result of the lesser of two evils.

In addition, Dr. Sun Yat-sen's mausoleum was in Nanjing, so if he did not defend Nanjing, it would be very morally difficult to allow Sun Yat-sen's mausoleum to be destroyed by the Japanese army.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Question five

Why didn't the Soviet Union send troops to help China?

Many friends know that in the early days of the Anti-Japanese War, the Soviet Union once verbally said that it would send troops to help China resist Japan, but later broke its promise and only the volunteer air force came to help the war.

To put it simply, it is like this: the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, at the request of the Nationalist Government, from October 1937, the Soviet Union sent an air force to China to help the war, which made Chiang Kai-shek see the hope that the Soviet Union would send its army to China to participate in the war. On November 10, 1937, Zhang Chong, the diplomatic representative of the Nationalist Government in the Soviet Union, met with Voroshilov, then Minister of Defense of the Soviet Union, in Moscow.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Soviet Defense Minister Voroshilov who made empty promises to China

Zhang Chong was very happy and immediately sent a telegram to report to Chiang Kai-shek.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Zhang Chong

On November 30, Chiang Kai-shek sent a telegram to Stalin, saying:

"China has now exhausted its last and greatest strength for the sake of national survival and international obligations, and has no choice but to retreat to Nanjing, but waiting for the support of the strength of its friendly Soviet Union and Russia, I hope that Mr. Wang will make a decision at the right time and rejuvenate the army with righteousness."

Did Stalin reply to Chiang Kai-shek? On December 5, Stalin sent a telegram to Chiang Kai-shek, saying:

"Troops can only be sent after the agreement of the Nine-Power Pact countries to jointly deal with Japan, and with the approval of the Supreme Soviet Conference two months later."

Chiang Kai-shek received a telegram from Stalin and was very disappointed.

So, why was the Soviet Union unwilling to send its army to China to fight the war and fight Japan together? In fact, at that time, the Soviet Union was also in the midst of internal and external troubles, internally, at the end of 1937, Stalin was in the Soviet Union to carry out a purge (historical name: the Soviet purge), externally, Stalin was guarding against the sudden invasion of Nazi Germany at all times, so Stalin did not dare to fall into the Chinese battlefield, into a big war with the Japanese army, because Stalin was worried that once the Soviet army entered China to resist Japan, then Germany might launch an attack on the Soviet Union in Europe, if that was the case, the Soviet Union was in a very dangerous situation.

So, in fact, what the Soviet Union gave Chiang Kai-shek was a blank check, and in fact, Stalin knew from beginning to end: the Soviet Union would not send troops to help China resist Japan.

Question six

Why didn't the people of Nanjing be evacuated before the war?

In fact, before August 1937, the population of Nanjing was about 1 million, and in August, Japanese planes bombed Nanjing, so Nanjing citizens moved out of Nanjing one after another and fled to the countryside for refuge, so in fact, when the Japanese army captured Nanjing in December, Nanjing's population was only about 500,000.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

So, the 500,000 people are also ordinary people, why did the Nationalist Government not organize the evacuation of these people before the Battle of Nanjing? The reasons are at least as follows:

One of the reasons: when preparing for war, a large-scale evacuation of the people will affect the morale of the Kuomintang troops.

Reason 2: The Nationalist Government underestimated the cruelty of the Japanese army, and they did not expect that after the Japanese army captured Nanjing, it would carry out a massacre.

This is why, when preparing for the war, the Kuomintang authorities did not take the initiative to organize the evacuation of the citizens of Nanjing.

However, despite this, the citizens of Nanjing, between August and December, still ran half (about 500,000 people) and hid in the countryside, and the remaining half (about 500,000 people) Nanjing citizens, for various reasons, were unwilling to flee, or really could not go, so they stayed in Nanjing and experienced a massacre, but, in all fairness, in fact, the people of Nanjing who stayed behind at that time did not expect that there would be a massacre.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Question 7

Why did the security zone elect a Nazi party member as its chairman?

Many friends have heard that John Rabe, the representative of the German Siemens company, established an "international safety zone" in Nanjing, protecting 250,000 refugees in Nanjing.

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Rabe

In fact, the Nanjing International Security Zone was not established by Rabe, but by a group of American missionaries advocated by Chinese Hang Liwu, and later the reason why the German Rabe was elected as chairman was because Rabe was a German and convenient for the Japanese army to accept.

The context of the development of things is roughly like this:

During the Battle of Songhu, a French missionary named Robert Jacquinot de Besange, S.J., Chinese established a "Nanshi Refugee Safety Zone" in Shanghai to shelter and protect many Shanghai refugees.

Then, two or three months later, the Japanese army captured Nanjing, at this time, Hang Liwu, chairman of Nanjing Jinling University, felt that it was necessary to imitate the successful experience of Shanghai's "Nanshi Refugee Safety Zone" and establish a refugee area in Nanjing to protect the citizens of Nanjing. John Gillespie Magee and others discussed the formation of a security zone in Nanjing. (Refer to Hang Liwu's "The Process of Organizing the Refugee Area after the Fall of Nanjing")

The Japanese soldiers took the Chinese prisoners to slaughter, why didn't they resist?

Taketake Hangli

Hang Liwu's idea was approved by these foreign missionaries, so a group of American missionaries led a group of American missionaries established a safe zone in Nanjing and began to shelter refugees.

Well, the question is, then, since the "International Security Zone" was established by Chinese Hang Liwu and a group of American missionaries, why did the "International Security Zone" later elect a German (the representative of German Siemens in China) John Rabe to be its chairman? Yes, it is the Rabe of "Rabe's Diary".

As soon as the answer is spoken, it dawns on you:

It turned out that Rabe was a German and a member of the Nazi Party, and at that time, Germany was an ally of Japan, so the foreigners in the security zone elected Rabe, a member of the German Nazi Party, as the chairman, because they took a fancy to Rabe's identity, which was conducive to the Japanese army's recognition of the safety zone.

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