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Ten questions about the holiday, there are still these questions that need to be clarified

author:Langya Academy Notes

Ten questions about the holiday, there are still these questions that need to be clarified

Beijing News

On April 12, the Beijing News released a video report titled "Is It Feasible to Take an Extra Day Off?", which sparked widespread discussion. #媒体发声能否叫停调休#词条登上微博热搜榜第一位. Since then, a number of media have followed up, and the topic of holiday has continued to arouse heated discussions.

We have sorted out the questions that netizens are concerned about and confused in the comment area, collected the voices of netizens, and answered them one by one based on facts, official statements and expert interpretations, hoping to provide reference for the further optimization and improvement of the mainland vacation system.

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Recently, the Beijing News released a video report titled "Is It Feasible to Take an Extra Day Off?", which sparked widespread heated discussions. The Beijing News knows the screenshot of the video

Interviewees:

Wu Bihu is the director of the Center for Tourism Research and Planning of Peking University and an academician of the International Tourism Research Institute

Dai Bin is President of China Tourism Academy and Director of the Data Center of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism

Question 1: What is the level of holiday days in the world?

In October last year, the National Development and Reform Commission issued a document to interpret the five highlights of the holiday arrangements in 2024, which mentioned that the total number of statutory holidays in mainland China is 11 days, 104 days off on weekends, 5-15 days of paid leave, and the total number of vacation days (120 to 130 days) is at the upper middle level in the world.

"But such a comparison is meaningless", Wu Bihu bluntly said, although the level of 11 days of public holidays is not low, and the 104 weekly holidays are also in line with the international level, but the West, especially Europe and the United States, their paid vacation days far exceed those of the mainland, and the implementation is very good, "That is real." ”

Statistics show that the number of 11-day public holidays in mainland China ranks more than 80 in more than 190 countries and regions in the world. In 2013, the former National Holiday Office compared the statutory holidays of 62 countries and regions, and found that their statutory holidays averaged 11.7 days, and the 11 days in the mainland belonged to the medium level, which was on par with France and Italy, and surpassed developed countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States. According to media statistics, South Korea and Japan, which are adjacent to the mainland, have 12 and 16 public holidays respectively.

In terms of weekly holidays, 52 weekends and weekends, i.e., 104 weekly holidays and the 8-hour working day, are in line with the international standard. However, in actual operation, there are still situations such as single rest and large and small weekly rotational rest, and not everyone has two weekends and weekends.

From the perspective of paid leave, the gap is relatively large. According to the statistics of the former National Holiday Office in 2013, based on 10 years of work, the average paid annual leave for employees in 62 countries and regions is 19 working days, and the mainland is 10 working days, ranking 59th in a tie, only higher than Thailand (6 working days) and the Philippines (5 working days).

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Wu Bihu, Director of the Center for Tourism Research and Planning of Peking University and Academician of the International Tourism Academy. The Beijing News knows the screenshot of the video

Question 2: Who "invented" the compensatory leave, and which department has the final say?

In the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China, in 1949, the holiday of the mainland was 7 days, which was increased to 10 days in 1999 and 11 days again in 2007, and the number of days has not been adjusted since then, and it has been in operation for 17 years.

The mainland compensatory leave system first appeared in 1999.

In that year, the State Council revised the "Holiday Measures", raising the public holiday from 7 days to 10 days, and for the first time proposed to adjust the adjacent weekends of the Spring Festival, Labor Day and National Day to form three consecutive 7-day long holidays.

The long holiday has stimulated the enthusiasm of the masses for travel, effectively stimulated domestic demand, and increased fiscal revenue, but due to insufficient supply, insufficient estimation of the new situation and other reasons, problems such as insufficient transportation capacity, full scenic spots, and bullying and stealing customers have also been exposed.

In response to this situation, in 2000, the State Council issued the "Notice on Several Opinions on Further Developing Holiday Tourism", proposing the establishment of a national holiday tourism inter-ministerial coordination conference system, led by the former National Tourism Administration, together with the former State Development Planning Commission, the former State Economic and Trade Commission and other 11 departments. Its office is known to the public as the "National Holiday Office".

At the end of each year, the National Holiday Office will study and put forward opinions on the holiday dates of the "Golden Week" of the following year, and after submitting them to the State Council for approval, the General Office of the State Council will announce them to the whole country.

In September 2014, the National Holiday Office, which had been in operation for 14 years, was officially abolished, and all functions were merged into the inter-ministerial joint conference system of the State Council's tourism work, with 28 departments of the State Council as members. The office of the joint conference is located in the former China National Tourism Administration.

Question 3: Is the pull of the holiday on the economy still obvious?

Dai Bin said that the emergence of the compensatory leave system objectively had economic reasons, and he hoped to piece together a long holiday to stimulate consumption through tourism. Now that 25 years have passed, is the pull of Golden Week still obvious to the economy?

As early as 2014, when the National Holiday Office was abolished, Dai Bin said that the consumption of the two long holidays of the National Day and the Spring Festival only accounted for 25% of the national tourism consumption, and the significance of the existence of the holiday office was not much in terms of numbers.

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Dai Bin, President of China Tourism Academy and Director of the Data Center of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The Beijing News knows the screenshot of the video

However, Liu Simin, a special researcher at the Tourism Research Center of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, has a different view, believing that the functions of the holiday office have been merged into the joint meeting, indicating that the holiday office has not been simply abolished, but has become more in-depth and comprehensive, which means that the Golden Week will continue.

From the perspective of the mainland's current economic structure, the 2023 data released by the National Bureau of Statistics shows that the added value of the tertiary industry accounts for 54.6% of the mainland's GDP, exceeding the proportion of the primary and secondary industries combined. In terms of contribution rate, in the 5.2% GDP growth for the whole year of 2023, final consumption expenditure contributed 4.3 percentage points, with a contribution rate of more than 82%.

Especially after the epidemic, promoting consumption and expanding domestic demand have become important levers to stimulate the economy. During this year's Spring Festival holiday, the number of domestic trips and spending reached a record high. At the two sessions of the National People's Political Consultative Conference this year, Liu Jieyi, spokesman of the Second Session of the 14th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, clearly said that the above figures show that the people's demand for improving the quality of life contains huge consumption potential and is a strong driving force for economic development.

Question 4: Do I have to take a day off?

The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) publicly responded in October last year, "In general, it is better to take a holiday than not to take a holiday, and it has to be adjusted." ”

The reason given by the National Development and Reform Commission is that among the seven statutory holidays in the mainland, the Spring Festival, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid-Autumn Festival are determined according to the lunar calendar, New Year's Day, Labor Day and National Day are determined according to the Gregorian calendar, and the Qingming Festival is based on the solar terms, which leads to the lack of connection between holidays and weekends in the Gregorian calendar.

If you don't take a holiday, there will be a gap of 1 working day between some holidays and weekends every year, resulting in "fragmentation" of holidays, etc., forming a lot of "single jumps". Compensatory leave is an effective policy arrangement made to avoid the "fragmentation" of holidays under the premise that the total number of holidays is fixed.

Question 5: Why do people complain about compensatory leave?

If the compensatory time off is good for the economy and can avoid the "fragmentation" of the holiday, why are people still complaining about the compensatory time off?

In the street collection, the "migrant workers" generally reported that the holiday did not play a role in resting, but made everyone more tired.

On the one hand, some office workers will choose to travel during the holidays, and they will have to work for 6 days in a row when they return to work after a tiring journey. At the same time, centralized travel during the same time period has also led to the failure to grab high-speed rail tickets, highway traffic jams, rising air tickets and hotels, and full scenic spots...... People's travel experiences are not good.

On the other hand, for many employees of units who take a single holiday, take a turn of leave, or need to be on duty on vacation, the compensatory leave may "withdraw" the original only one day's rest, and finally lead to no vacation and no rest.

Many netizens shared real pain points. Netizens in Tianjin said, "Those of us who take a single day off have to take 7 or 9 days in a row, and last year's Spring Festival took 11 days in a row"; netizens in Zhejiang left a message, "When we come back from Qingming and take 7 days in a row, there is no difference between those who take a single day off and those who do not take a day off"; a netizen in Guangdong said, "For those who take a single holiday, May Day is actually equivalent to only taking one day off plus one day of weekend, a total of 2 days."

For people who need to be on duty, "only 1 day, normal weekends off do not need to be on duty, but make up 3 days to be on duty for 3 days", "May Day off 5 days, I am on duty for 2 days, and I have to make up for 2 days, which means that I only have 1 day off in total", "I need to be on duty for the holiday, is it not good to work on the day of the normal holiday?"

In addition, we also learned through the comment area that it is worse than a single holiday, some netizens only have 2 days off a month, and some people "only take 1 day off in March".

Q6: Do we still need to take time off?

At present, the views of the public on whether or not to compensate for leave and how to compensate for leave are quite different.

In addition to the fact that the entire economic development still needs the contribution of the holiday economy, there are also some practical needs for individuals.

Wu Bihu said that in the past ten years, with the acceleration of the urbanization process in the mainland, the population has gradually gathered in the cities, and even in the first-tier cities, young people working in the cities have the actual need to go home to visit relatives, but due to the busy work, some people have a long way to go home, and they do need to have a long vacation to go home.

From the perspective of the demand for Chinese travel, China has a vast territory, "from Guangdong to Xinjiang, he can't go without a 7-day long vacation", only a long vacation can make everyone's long-distance travel possible.

It can be seen that the real needs of Chinese are long holidays.

But at present, the supply of long holidays in the mainland is still relatively small, "You see that every year is particularly congested, everyone complains that it is not good, why will he go out the next year, because he has no choice." Wu Bihu pointed out.

Due to the poor implementation of the paid leave system in the mainland, it is impossible to realize "my vacation, I am in charge", resulting in people can only travel in a centralized manner during the national holiday.

To a certain extent, this also explains why it is difficult to change the compensatory leave system, "with so many complaints, why does the government insist on centralized long vacations, because it is necessary to solve the problem of whether most people 'have'", "If the holiday is not compulsory, enterprises may find various reasons not to let them take vacations".

Wu Bihu said that whether we still need to take time off, we should consider whether the total amount of leave can be increased, whether paid leave can be implemented, and in the case of these two points have not changed, the time off may be the only way to provide people with long vacations.

Question 7: Can the implementation of paid leave replace compensatory leave?

As early as 2007, Tsinghua University's holiday system reform research group headed by Tsinghua University professor Cai Jiming put forward relevant suggestions. In 2014, Cai Jiming published an article entitled "Suggestions on Further Adjusting and Improving the Mainland Holiday System" in the "Humanities Magazine", once again proposing to vigorously implement the paid leave system.

Cai Jiming pointed out at the time that from the perspective of safeguarding workers' right to rest, the paid leave system is imperative. If the paid leave system is perfected, people will have time to travel long distances, and they can also stagger the time and place, and the regrets caused by the adjustment of Golden Week can be completely eliminated.

Nearly 20 years later, the paid leave system in mainland China has still not been fully implemented. Wu Bihu even said that the "National Tourism and Leisure Development Outline (2022-2030)" issued in 2022 proposes to achieve paid leave for all by 2030, "I feel that it still can't be realized."

Question 8: Why can't paid leave be implemented?

As early as 2008, the Regulations on Paid Annual Leave for Employees, formulated in accordance with the Labor Law and the Civil Servants Law, were officially implemented.

The "Regulations" do not make mandatory provisions for the implementation of paid leave, and the unit shall make overall arrangements for the annual leave of employees according to the specific conditions of production and work, and considering the wishes of the employees themselves. With the consent of the employee himself, the employee may not be arranged to take annual leave. Employees shall be paid three times their wages for the number of days they should have not taken.

This leaves room for "bargaining" for the implementation of paid leave, and at this year's National People's Congress and the National People's Congress, Huo Qigang, a representative of the National People's Congress, brought a proposal to modify the number of paid annual leave days to increase according to the length of service, and at the same time enforce the relevant policies of paid annual leave, and improve the provisions on corporate violations of legal liability.

Dai Bin said that one of the reasons why it is difficult to implement paid leave at present is law enforcement, and creating a more conducive social atmosphere for leave requires our legal and administrative departments to keep up.

In addition to "can't take a break", the reporter learned in the interview that many workers themselves "dare not take a break".

"Shame on leave" is one of the factors, "it is difficult to ask for leave, you need to hand over to other colleagues, you are afraid of causing trouble", "everyone has not taken leave, and I am embarrassed to ask for leave".

In addition, the intensification of social competition pressure also makes migrant workers dare not take a break easily. Some interviewees told reporters that they are in the age of "going up", everyone is doing the same work, so there is no way to select people, and only by using the rest time to do a little more can they have some advantages in the competition. Some respondents also said that at present, "salaries are declining and the scale of layoffs is still some", and the overall competitive pressure has led to a dare not rest.

"China is too volatile", Wu Bihu said bluntly, "once people over the age of 40 are unemployed, it is difficult to find employment or entrepreneurial opportunities, which leads to the pressure to everyone, and no one dares to rest." ”

Question 9: Is there a "drama" in increasing holidays?

In this round of discussions, in addition to calling for the implementation of weekends and paid annual leave, increasing leave is also a mainstream voice. Specific suggestions include resuming the "May Day" three-day holiday, only adjusting the leave and not adjusting the shift, and not making up the shift after the small and long holiday.

The "National Tourism and Leisure Development Outline (2022-2030)" issued in 2022 proposes to "optimize the time distribution pattern of national annual festivals and statutory holidays". In this regard, the central media recently issued an article saying, "If you focus on the well-being of the people, after new optimization, it is not impossible to appropriately increase the number of statutory holidays." ”

In this regard, Wu Bihu said that through the holiday, we have initially solved the problem of "whether there is a long holiday", and now we are discussing increasing the holiday and reducing the holiday, and it has indeed reached the stage of solving the "good or not".

"Next, whether to add 1 to 2 days of holidays, and whether to put it on May Day or Spring Festival after the increase, or where to put it, still need to solicit opinions. Wu Bihu said.

Dai Bin also said that whether to appropriately increase the vacation of 1 to 2 days, I believe that the decision-making department is also thinking, but this is a systematic and rational decision-making process.

Question 10: When will the leave system be changed?

Wu Bihu revealed that he himself has attended some meetings, and the adjustment of the leave system has entered the discussion at the government level, but the plan has not yet come out.

The difficulty lies in the fact that on the one hand, "it is difficult to reconcile the voices of all sides" and fully listen to the voices of all sides; on the other hand, "when formulating policies, every department first thinks of the things I am in charge of, and there should be no problems in this industry", which is also a deep reason why the reform of the holiday system has not been promoted for a long time, Wu Bihu said.

For example, if we have a large-scale music festival, the cultural and tourism department hopes that 10,000 people will come to the square to dance, and the atmosphere of the event will be good and the communication will be strong, but the relevant management department may hope that it is best to have only 1,000 people, so that there will be no stampede or other accidents.

For another example, if you have an extra day off, the cultural tourism and industrial and commercial departments are very welcome, because it will drive the cultural tourism and retail industries, but at the same time, the industry and information technology departments may wonder if the holiday will have an impact on the manufacturing industry, and the personnel and labor departments may be worried about whether there will be labor disputes.

Wu Bihu believes that it is necessary to give the relevant departments a "permissible error", which belongs to the scope of normal work, and in the "allowable error", it is not necessary to let the department "write and check", "otherwise everyone would rather not work".

Dai Bin said that in the next step, the mainland holiday system must be optimized and improved, which needs to be promoted on the basis of market research, data measurement, and policy simulation pilots.

In addition, some voices in public opinion also believe that the current "declining birthrate" and "aging" in the mainland exist at the same time, in addition to improving maternity leave, increasing the period of public holidays and rationally arranging the distribution pattern of leave should also be used as supporting measures for childbirth, so that people have more time and energy to give birth, raise and educate children. They believe that in the context of negative population growth, the reform plan of the leave system should be released as soon as possible.

Beijing News reporter Jiang Huizi

Edited by Tang Zheng and proofread by Zhang Yanjun