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10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

The phone still has 20% battery left, and it sends two voices, and it automatically shuts down, can my phone only send ten voices when fully charged?

The electric car shows that there is still 10% battery left, and it broke down directly after rubbing less than 100 meters, is it that my car only has a full battery life of one kilometer?

The matter of battery anxiety is like a midlife crisis, the more you look at it, the more anxious you are, and the more anxious you are, the more you want to see it.

When Apple updated iOS 16 last year, the iPhone battery percentage display returned after a long absence.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

The percentage hanging over the top of the phone is like a countdown to the time bomb (before the update)丨Image source phone screenshot

For such a "return", many users shout "lack of morality" - the percentage hanging on the top of the mobile phone is like a countdown to a time bomb, with its own brain supplement sound effect, always reminding you that "it's time to charge".

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

iOS 16.1 battery icon will also change synchronously, and full-screen iPhones have supported battery percentage display (after update)丨Image source: Mobile phone screenshot

This "percentage" that makes you anxious, called the SoC (State of Charge), represents the ratio of the battery's remaining capacity to its actual capacity. How much power is left in a mobile phone (or electric car) cannot be directly measured, but must be estimated by measuring voltage and current.

So the remaining power of the battery depends on itself?

  The power display is a "scam"  

Usually, the "fully charged" state displayed on the phone does not mean that the battery is really unchargeable - the manufacturer will define the charging cut-off voltage and discharge cut-off voltage for the battery: a common situation is that 1% of the electricity can be used for a long time, which may be because the engineer wants you to charge it as soon as possible, so that the battery will not be really depleted and damage the battery.

There are a variety of measurement methods to "blind" the SoC value. Commonly used examples include the Coulomb Meter (also known as the Ampere-hour Integral Method) – which counts the current during use. To put it simply, a metering chip is installed in the battery, different currents produce different voltage differences, and the chip can get the remaining power by integrating the changing current and time to obtain the amount of electricity when the user uses it.

The disadvantage of this measurement method is that it is an open-loop estimation system, and it does not have the ability to correct the initial value error and the ability to adjust the error caused by noise and measurement error.

库仑计原理丨Battery University 

Another common method is the voltage test method, which measures the voltage of the battery to determine the change in power. At a certain temperature, the battery's SoC exhibits a one-to-one correspondence with the open-circuit voltage (OCV). However, due to the fact that the acquisition of open-circuit voltage often requires a long period of standing, it is difficult to carry out online estimation of open-circuit voltage.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

The corresponding changes between voltage and capacity at different temperatures are nonlinear丨Richtek Technology

For example, the OCV-SoC curve of lithium iron phosphate batteries is "nonlinear". In the graphical range, even if there is a large range of changes in the SoC, the change in the value reflected in the OCV is small.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

OCV-SoC curve of lithium iron phosphate battery丨Image sourceReference 4

Different measurement methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the common thing is that there are errors in all of them. Manufacturers are also researching optimization algorithms (such as neural networks, Kalman filters, fuzzy algorithms, etc.) to establish more accurate power estimation models. For example, in the Coulomb method, it is necessary to use the Kalman filter method for initial value calibration, and in the open-circuit voltage method, the dynamic equilibrium voltage is established based on historical data, which is then used in the real-time estimation of the SoC.

For example, the example at the beginning shows that the battery is still 10%, but when you click on the app, the phone will turn off when you run out of power - perhaps because the battery is aging, and the SoC does not estimate the battery well, and does not predict the degradation of the battery.

The inaccurate display of the power has exacerbated people's "power anxiety", for which large-capacity batteries have once become an important selling point of smart phones, and mobile phone manufacturers are like an arms race, frantically developing fast charging technology. It's just that all kinds of measures have not completely cured people's heart disease.

  Manufacturers are anxious, users are also anxious, hardware is anxious, software is even more anxious  

The screen display and communication module are the most critical factors affecting the power consumption of smartphones.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

Power consumption test in four scenarios: video playback, text messaging, phone calling, and e-mail丨Image source NICTA (Australian National Information and Communication Technology Research Agency) released a report in 2010

In the era of feature phones, mobile phones have small screens, not to mention the pursuit of high refresh rates, high resolutions, wide color gamuts and other characteristics. Most feature phones can reach a battery life of several days, and some models with long battery life as a selling point can reach several months. In 2010, Philips released a Xenium X513 with a battery capacity of only 2000mAh, but it can last 60 days in standby and can last 20 hours of talking.

From another perspective, it is actually the battery that shapes the appearance of our mobile phones. In 1973, Motorola released the DynaTAC 8000X, also known as the "Big Brother", because half of the volume and weight were taken up by the battery. The battery compartment consists of 6 cylindrical nickel-cadmium batteries, with a 10-hour charge and 35 minutes of talking.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

Martin Cooper, the father of mobile phones, holds the DynaTAC 8000X丨Image source TechWorld.hu

The advent of nickel-metal hydride battery technology has changed people's impression of mobile phone "bricks". In 1996, the Motorola flip phone "StarTAC" was the lightest and smallest phone on the market at the time, weighing only 88 grams.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

Analog signal StarTAC丨Image source: Wikipedia

In the era of feature phones, even if the battery life of a battery is not long, it can be "lasted" by replacing the battery - just like the battery swapping and battery life scheme of some new energy vehicles.

It wasn't until later that the advent of the iPhone brought the all-in-one body that has become the mainstream today, and also took away the convenience of "changing the battery". The volume of the battery gets bigger and bigger along with the area of the screen. To this day, someone has taken apart the inside of the iPhone 14 and found that the battery is still nearly one-third (and at most on the iPhone 5).

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

iPhone 14 内部丨图片来源 iFixit

In the history of smartphone development, there is no shortage of models with "large batteries" as a selling point. Released in 2015, the Gionee M5 has a 6020mAh battery that lasts up to 49 days of standby and 71 hours of talk life, at the cost of a thick and heavy body (8.5mm thick, weighing 214g).

There are also some folk geeks who are keen to explore solutions to achieve "power saving" through software optimization, among which the Android user group is the most representative.

At first, the hardware specifications of the Android machine were not high, with a single-core CPU and 256M or 512M running memory, and the system was slow and stuck. There are various root tutorials circulating on the forums. Many third-party ROMs have beautiful UIs, but users are more likely to uninstall pre-installed apps to free up storage space, speed up the system, and save power.

You can still find articles like "Teach developers how to make a battery-saving Android ROM". The first geeks in the mobile Internet era rooted their mobile phones, installed the Xposed framework, and used software such as "Green Guardian" to manage the background to prevent apps from being automatically woken up when the screen was locked. After such "extreme tuning", a better battery life can reach about three or four days.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

Green Guardian App Interface丨Image source: Google Play

Around 2010, people who had just adopted smartphones were most enthusiastic about discussing and spreading all kinds of "power-saving metaphysics" on the Internet: turning off Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS positioning, actively cleaning up the background, even lowering the brightness of their phones, and using dark wallpapers......

The Android system did not add the official battery saving mode until it was updated to 5.0, which will reduce performance and delay the automatic update of some programs.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

Android 5.0 interface丨Image source: Phandroid

Apple's power-saving mode starts with iOS 9: it automatically activates when the device is below 20% battery, increases battery life by turning off power-hungry sources such as background apps and location services, and automatically turns off when the device exceeds 80% battery.

To this day, there are still people who retain the habit of clearing the background and turning off Bluetooth, even if these measures have little effect on extending battery life. According to a simulation test by Android Authority, the difference in power consumption between Bluetooth on and off over the course of a day of use was only 1.8%.

  Power Anxiety: A Mindset or a Technology Issue?  

Obviously, the management of background software in smart phones is becoming more and more mature, the energy density of lithium batteries is getting higher and higher, and the power consumption of mobile phone chips is getting lower and lower, but why is the curse of "one-day battery life" still there?

That's because while technology is advancing, so are the needs and usage habits.

Influenced by the trend of large screens and thinness, mainstream smartphones today rarely sell "large batteries". Fast charging has become the mainstream solution to solve power anxiety, "5 minutes of charging, 2 hours of calls" was once a marketing example, and now the ceiling is the iQOO 10 Pro, with a charging specification of up to 200W, and a full 4700mAh battery in 10 minutes.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

iQOO 截图丨图片来源 iQOO 官方

Since it is difficult to increase the battery capacity, increase its "resurrection times", and when charging does not take much time, or even ignore, the anxiety caused by low battery will be much less.

Reduce, not eliminate. In addition to the public PD and QC fast charging, there are also private protocols such as OPPO's VOOC and vivo's FlashCharge, which have high requirements for the adaptation of charging heads and cables. Buying a good third-party GaN charger costs more than 100 yuan, which is another additional cost.

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

GaN charger丨Image source: JD.com screenshot

The "mentality problem" of power anxiety ultimately depends on the development of battery technology. Battery technology is an extremely complex problem, and various factors such as battery life, safety, efficiency, and cost need to be considered, and increasing energy density alone cannot solve the problem.

The essence of battery charging and discharging is the directional movement of ions between the positive and negative electrodes, which is consumed (and also affected by temperature) when it reacts chemically with the substances in the electrolyte. The moment the battery is built, the life span is decreasing, and even if it is not used, it will be lost. Everyone's mobile phone usage habits are different, which will also affect the actual power consumption rate.

At present, combined with fast charging technology, power-saving mode, etc., there is almost no need for us to pursue long battery life on the premise of sacrificing experience. It was only after learning the truth that I realized that the hearts I had in the past were "wrong" after all.

bibliography

[1] https://www.macrumors.com/2022/09/14/ios-16-1-battery-percentage-iphone-13-mini/

[2]https://www.ifanr.com/app/668211

[3]https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/108788053

Author: Liu Diudiu

Editor: Shen Zhihan

10% in the first second, and automatically shut down in the next second, how does the battery of the mobile phone be calculated?

This article is from Guoke and may not be reproduced without authorization.

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(min-width:1024px){body:not(.pages_skin_pc) .wx-root[data-weui-theme=dark],body:not(.pages_skin_pc) body[data-weui-theme=dark]{--weui-BG-0: #111;--weui-BG-1: #1e1e1e;--weui-BG-2: #191919;--weui-BG-3: #202020;--weui-BG-4: #404040;--weui-BG-5: #2c2c2c;--weui-FG-0: rgba(255, 255, 255, .. 8);--weui-FG-HALF: rgba(255, 255, 255, .6);--weui-FG-1: rgba(255, 255, 255, .5);--weui-FG-2: rgba(255, 255, 255, .3);--weui-FG-3: rgba(255, 255, 255, .1);--weui-FG-4: rgba(255, 255, 255, .15);--weui-FG-5: rgba(255, 255, .1);--weui-RED: #fa5151;--weui-ORANGERED: #ff6146;--weui-ORANGE: #c87d2f;--weui-YELLOW: #cc9c00;--weui-GREEN: #74a800;--weui-LIGHTGREEN: #3eb575;--weui-FIRE: #07c160;--weui-BLUE: #10aeff;;--weui-INDIGO: #1196ff;--weui-PURPLE: #8183ff;--weui-WHITE: rgba(255, 255, 255, .8);--weui-LINK: #7d90a9;--weui-TEXTGREEN: #259c5c;--weui-FG: #fff;--weui-BG: #000;--weui-TAG-TEXT-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-ORANGE: rgba(250, 157, 59, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-ORANGE: rgba(250, 157, 59, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-GREEN: RGBA(6, 174, 86, .) 6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-GREEN: rgba(6, 174, 86, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-BLUE: rgba(16, 174, 255, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-BLUE: rgba(16, 174, 255, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-BLACK: rgba(255, 255, 255, .5);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-BLACK: rgba(255, 255, 255, .05)}}@media screen and (min-width:1024px){body:not(.pages_skin_pc) .wx-root[data-weui-theme=dark],body:not(.pages_skin_pc) body[data-weui-theme=dark]{--appmsgExtra-BG: #121212}}@media screen and (min-width:1024px){body:not(.pages_skin_pc)body:not(.pages_skin_pc){background:var(--weui-BG-2)}}@media screen and (min-width:1024px) and (prefers-color-scheme:dark){body:not(.pages_skin_pc) .wx-root[data-weui-mode=care]:not([data-weui-theme=light]),body:not(.pages_skin_pc) body[data-weui-mode=care]:not([data-weui-theme=light]){--weui-BG-0: #111;--weui-BG-1: #1e1e1e;--weui-BG-2: #191919;--weui-BG-3: #202020;--weui-BG-4: #404040;--weui-BG-5: #2c2c2c;--weui-FG-0: rgba(255, 255, 255, .. 85);--weui-FG-HALF: rgba(255, 255, 255, .65);--weui-FG-1: rgba(255, 255, 255, .55);--weui-FG-2: rgba(255, 255, 255, .35);--weui-FG-3: rgba(255, 255, 255, .1);--weui-FG-4: rgba(255, 255, 255, .15);--weui-FG-5: rgba(255, 255, 255, .1);--weui-RED: #fa5151;--weui-ORANGERED: #ff6146;--weui-ORANGE: #c87d2f;--weui-YELLOW: #cc9c00;--weui-GREEN: #74a800;--weui-LIGHTGREEN: #3eb575;--weui-FIRE: #07c160;--weui-BLUE: #10aeff;--weui-INDIGO: #1196ff;;--weui-PURPLE: #8183ff;--weui-WHITE: rgba(255, 255, 255, .8);--weui-LINK: #7d90a9;--weui-TEXTGREEN: #259c5c;--weui-FG: #fff;--weui-BG: #000;--weui-TAG-TEXT-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-ORANGE: rgba(250, 157, 59, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-ORANGE: rgba(250, 157, 59, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-GREEN: rgba(6, 174, 86, .6); --weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-GREEN: rgba(6, 174, 86, .) 1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-BLUE: rgba(16, 174, 255, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-BLUE: rgba(16, 174, 255, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-BLACK: rgba(255, 255, 255, .5);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-BLACK: rgba(255, 255, 255, .05)}}@media screen and (min-width:1024px) and (prefers-color-scheme:dark){body:not(.pages_skin_pc) .wx-root:not([data-weui-theme=light]),body:not(.pages_skin_pc) body:not([data-weui-theme=light]){--weui-BG-0: #111;--weui-BG-1: #1e1e1e;--weui-BG-2: #191919;--weui-BG-3: #202020;--weui-BG-4: #404040;--weui-BG-5: #2c2c2c;--weui-FG-0: rgba(255, 255, 255, .8);--weui-FG-HALF: rgba(255, 255, 255, .6);--weui-FG-1: rgba(255, 255, 255, .5);--weui-FG-2: rgba(255, 255, 255, .3);--weui-FG-3: rgba(255, 255, 255, .1);--weui-FG-4: rgba(255, 255, 255, .15);--weui-FG-5: rgba(255, 255, 255, .1);--weui-RED: #fa5151;--weui-ORANGERED: #ff6146;--weui-ORANGE: #c87d2f;--weui-YELLOW: #cc9c00;--weui-GREEN: #74a800;--weui-LIGHTGREEN: #3eb575;;--weui-FIRE: #07c160;--weui-BLUE: #10aeff;--weui-INDIGO: #1196ff;--weui-PURPLE: #8183ff;--weui-WHITE: rgba(255, 255, 255, .8);--weui-LINK: #7d90a9;--weui-TEXTGREEN: #259c5c;--weui-FG: #fff;--weui-BG: #000;--weui-TAG-TEXT-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-ORANGE: rgba(250, 157, 59, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-ORANGE: rgba(250, 157, 59, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-GREEN: rgba(6, 174, 86, .. 6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-GREEN: rgba(6, 174, 86, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-BLUE: rgba(16, 174, 255, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-BLUE: rgba(16, 174, 255, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-BLACK: rgba(255, 255, 255, .5);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-BLACK: rgba(255, 255, 255, .05)}}@media screen and (min-width:1024px) and (prefers-color-scheme:dark){body:not(.pages_skin_pc) .wx-root:not([data-weui-theme=light]), body:not(.pages_skin_pc) body:not([data-weui-theme=light]){--appmsgExtra-BG: #121212}}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){body:not([data-weui-theme=light]).my_comment_empty_data{background-color:#111}}body,.wx-root{--weui-BG-6: rgba(0, 0, 0, .05);--weui-ACTIVE-MASK: rgba(0, 0, 0, .05)}body,.wx-root{--weui-REDORANGE: #ff6146;--weui-BG-0: #ededed;--weui-BG-1: #f7f7f7;--weui-BG-2: #fff;--weui-BG-3: #f7f7f7;--weui-BG-4: #4c4c4c;--weui-BG-5: #fff;--weui-FG-0: rgba(0, 0, 0, .9);--weui-FG-HALF: rgba(0, 0, 0, .9);--weui-FG-1: rgba(0, 0, 0, .55);--weui-FG-2: rgba(0, 0, 0, .3);--weui-FG-3: rgba(0, 0, 0, .1);--weui-FG-4: rgba(0, 0, 0, .15);--weui-FG-5: rgba(0, 0, 0, .05);--weui-RED: #fa5151;--weui-ORANGERED: #ff6146;--weui-ORANGE: #fa9d3b;--weui-YELLOW: #ffc300;--weui-GREEN: #91d300;--weui-LIGHTGREEN: #95ec69;--weui-FIRE: #07c160;--weui-BLUE: #10aeff;--weui-INDIGO: #1485ee;--weui-PURPLE: #6467f0;--weui-WHITE: #fff;--weui-LINK: #576b95;--weui-TEXTGREEN: #06ae56;--weui-FG: #000;--weui-BG: #fff;--weui-TAG-TEXT-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-ORANGE: #fa9d3b;--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-ORANGE: rgba(250, 157, 59, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-GREEN: #06ae56;--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-GREEN: rgba(6, 174, 86, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-BLUE: #10aeff;--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-BLUE: rgba(16, 174, 255, .1);-- 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#1196ff;--weui-PURPLE: #8183ff;--weui-WHITE: rgba(255, 255, 255, .8);--weui-LINK: #7d90a9;--weui-TEXTGREEN: #259c5c;--weui-FG: #fff;--weui-BG: #000;--weui-TAG-TEXT-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .6); --weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-RED: rgba(250, 81, 81, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-ORANGE: rgba(250, 157, 59, .) 6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-ORANGE: rgba(250, 157, 59, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-GREEN: rgba(6, 174, 86, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-GREEN: rgba(6, 174, 86, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-BLUE: rgba(16, 174, 255, .6);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-BLUE: rgba(16, 174, 255, .1);--weui-TAG-TEXT-BLACK: rgba(255, 255, 255, .5);--weui-TAG-BACKGROUND-BLACK: rgba(255, 255, 255, .05)}}@media(prefers-color-scheme: dark){.wx-root:not([data-weui-theme=light]),body:not([data-weui-theme=light]){-appmsgExtra-BG: #121212}}*{margin:0; padding:0}.rich_media_content *{max-width:100%!important; box-sizing:border-box!important;-webkit-box-sizing:border-box!important; word-wrap:break-word!important}

div.autoTypeSetting24psection > p,div.autoTypeSetting24psection > section{margin-bottom: 24px;}

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