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India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

author:Tomoshi Tsukasora

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Preface

In 1975, India invaded the capital of Sikkim and quickly eliminated a large number of anti-Indian elements, forcing its king to flee to the United States.

When the dragons were leaderless, India seized the opportunity to annex them.

In order to stabilize the situation in Sikkim, India has vigorously supported the pro-Indian elements in Sikkim and allocated a large amount of financial support to the local government every year, accounting for 30% of the budget.

Decades have passed, and India has been very secretive about the Sikkim issue, even deliberately blocking news related to Sikkim. So what has become of this region?

What happened when India attacked Sikkim?

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

The colonized Sikkim dynasty

Sikkim was once a vassal state of China, with its own form of government, very close relations with Tibet, and the people of Sikkim at that time were typical yellow-skinned and black-haired East Asians.

Geographically, Sikkim is unique in that it is sandwiched between China and India in the Himalayas, as well as Bhutan and Nepal.

Such a region has very important military significance.

In times of peace, Sikkim would probably remain that way, but that changed dramatically with the British invasion of India.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

After the establishment of the East India Company in India, the British slowly took control of the de facto power in India.

At that time, India contributed rich minerals and a large number of labor to Britain, and even the Queen of England couldn't help but praise India as the "pearl" of Britain.

However, India and China are only separated by a Himalaya, and once an armed force enters India from the Himalayas, this flat area will be exposed to the eyes of the other side without any hindrance, and Britain will not have time to defend itself.

In order to strengthen their control over India and prevent other forces from encroaching on India, the British set their sights on several small countries in the Himalayas.

Their plan was to establish military positions on the territory of these small countries as a buffer zone between China and India in case India was lost.

Sikkim is one of these small countries.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

In 1814, the British East India Company began its invasion of Sikkim.

They captured Darjeeling and the Rangid River, confronted the Sikkim dynasty, and forced Sikkim to sign an unequal treaty with the British.

In 1887, the British gained control of Sikkim and forcibly occupied it.

At that time, Sikkim's economy was relatively backward, and the only thing that could be used was agriculture, and the country could not afford to raise too many soldiers, so it was often bullied by neighboring Bhutan and Nepal.

After the British took control of Sikkim, Bhutan and Nepal did not dare to trouble Sikkim anymore, but only a year later, the conflict between Britain and the Tibetan region of the mainland reached the point of saber rattling.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

The British used Sikkim as a base to launch an attack on West Bengal and the Sino-Indian border, which led to the involvement of Sikkim and the devastation of the people again.

As a result of this battle, the Qing court had to recognize Sikkim as a British protectorate, and Sikkim, which was completely occupied, was dug into the ground by British machines to conduct mineral surveys in an attempt to extract valuable gems.

Sikkim's cultural form is in the same vein as Tibet, and its beliefs are very strong, which has greatly hindered British colonial rule.

In order to change the attitude of the Sikkimetes, the British forcibly relocated some Hindu Nepalese to Sikkim to dilute the proportion of the population who opposed British colonization.

This approach was effective, but it was limited, as many Nepalis also hated the British.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

In 1918, when the First World War ended, Britain returned power to the then King Namgarh, who was in turmoil and had no time to worry about it.

Under the influence of the British, Sikkim began a wave of land reform, and the state form improved.

This is one of the few growth opportunities since the British colonized Sikkim.

In the decades that followed, Sikkim was a small transparent piece and did not become the object of coveting by the great powers.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

It was not until the end of World War II that Britain gave up its colonial rights to India, India declared independence, and Sikkim was noted to the northeast.

The Indians took it for granted that they had the right to inherit everything that the British had left behind, including control of Sikkim.

They forced Sikkim to sign the Status Quo Agreement and thus interfered in the internal affairs of the country.

India's actions aroused the discontent of the Sikkim royal family, and the local people also protested one after another, and even triggered a popular uprising, and Sikkim mobilized almost the whole country to resist India's actions.

Compared with Sikkim, India has a very huge advantage in terms of population and national strength, and in the case of disparity in strength, how will Sikkim face the invasion of India?

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

India annexes Sikkim

The turmoil in Sikkim gave India the opportunity to send troops, and they sent a large number of soldiers to Sikkim on the pretext of "preventing unrest and bloodshed", and occupied Sikkim almost without its ability to fortify.

Although the Indians have come to see it as their own territory, internationally, Sikkim was once an independent country and has never been associated with India, and India's invasion is bound to attract the attention of other countries.

India is desperate to get the area and doesn't have too many concerns.

They stormed the capital of Sikkim, immediately took control of the local government, and coercively selected an Indian to be the prime minister of Sikkim.

Even if the locals were furious, they could not form an effective armed resistance.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

Under the angry gaze of the Sikkimians, India drew up a Peace Treaty of Sikkim in India.

The treaty clearly stated that Sikkim was a protectorate of India, that India had the right to station troops in the country, and that the Sikkim government could not procure weapons in any form, directly cutting off the possibility of Sikkim resistance.

In addition, India has also forbidden the Sikkim government to interact with any other country, and even some international aid will not be directly connected to the Sikkimese government.

In 1968, there were mass demonstrations in Gangtok, the capital of Sikkim, where people took to the streets shouting anti-Indian slogans and demanding the abrogation of the Sikkim Peace Treaty of India.

The new king also joined in with great courage and demanded that India return the state to the Sikkimians.

But at that time, India had the support of the United States and the Soviet Union, and it was developing by leaps and bounds in all aspects, and it was not afraid of resistance from the Sikkim people at all.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

In 1973, the Indian army rushed into Sikkim again and forced the other side to sign the Sikkim Agreement, and Sikkim's defense, foreign affairs, internal affairs, and economy completely fell into the hands of the Indians.

Another invasion by force brought even greater anger to the Sikkimese.

But the locals were unarmed and unable to form a threatening armed resistance, and everyone was like a helpless child in front of the Indian soldiers, and could only passively accept the mercy of India.

The advent of the new treaty meant that Sikkim fell further into the hands of the Indians.

However, they were not ready to give up, they took control of the Sikkim parliament, formulated a constitution, and turned Sikkim into an "associated state" of India.

The Indians did not choose to suppress it by force, and the concern was not whether Sikkim would resist, but where international public opinion would fall.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

After a short period of calm, it was April 9, 1975.

Seeing that the countries did not pay much attention to the Sikkim issue, India finally lost its breath and decided to disband the king's palace guard, put the king under house arrest and depose the king through parliament.

A few days later, India manipulated the conference and voted to turn Sikkim into an Indian state, and Sikkim perished.

Globally, Sikkim is like a small splash of water, with ripples that can only spread to a limited extent, and the fact that its disappearance has not shocked too many people.

Internationally, the Soviet Union supported India's approach, while the United States, fearing that India would turn to the Soviet Union, did not make any statements.

At that time, the mainland was in a special period, and although a statement was made, it did not have much impact.

India can be said to have seen the right time, and in the delicate international situation, it has obtained Sikkim at the lowest cost.

So what will be the fate of Sikkim, which will be annexed to India?

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

Current situation in Sikkim

After India occupied Sikkim, in order to calm things down as soon as possible, it planned a series of favorable policies, and even granted special privileges to Sikkim.

Sikkim's economy was relatively backward, so India planned to build a road to connect India and Sikkim.

It facilitated trade and Indians to enter Sikkim, which later became the only route from Sikkim to India.

The reason why the second one was not built can be found in a major event a few decades later.

In terms of public facilities, India has spent a lot of money to build many toilets, making Sikkim the first state in India to have no open-air toilets.

Don't underestimate this plan, even in 2023, many parts of India will still only have open-air toilets.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

In terms of daily life, considering that Sikkim is an inland region, mountainous and agriculturally homogeneous, India has made special concessions to transport fresh vegetables and fruits to Sikkim.

In terms of trade, India has specially planned a green channel from Sikkim to the port of Kolkata to promote the local economy.

In addition, India has also set up special funds to invest in the Sikkim government budget and people's livelihood, and build Sikkim with real money.

Everything India has done is to make Sikkim slowly accept the fact of its destruction, accept India as soon as possible, and stop making things happen on the border.

So can Sikkim really quickly forget its national enmity and embrace India? The answer is no.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

In 1982, when the King of Sikkim in exile in the United States died, the new King Wangchuck immediately complained about India's illegal possession of Sikkim.

The indigenous people of Sikkim responded one after another, and at the same time, the voices of the Sikkimese people were finally heard by the foreign media.

However, this time it did not change the fact that Sikkim was annexed, the new king did not have international support, and Sikkim was more tightly controlled by India.

40,000 Indian soldiers are stationed in Sikkim, ready to suppress the rebellion, and even foreigners who want to enter Sikkim are subject to layers of scrutiny.

There were no more voices of resistance in Sikkim after the blockade, and India carried out a more thorough cleansing campaign, immigrating large numbers of Indians and Nepalis to Sikkim in an attempt to assimilate the indigenous Sikkim people through race and faith.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

According to the 1969 census, there were 190,000 people in Sikkim, 75% of whom were Nepalese immigrants.

By 2011, the population of Sikkim had risen to 610,000, and the indigenous people of Sikkim had become a very small ethnic group.

In times of peace, population growth often represents the transition from extreme poverty to food and clothing, but the living conditions of the people of Sikkimese are not good, and many people do not survive anymore.

According to the Global Times, India has an average of 10.6 suicides per 100,000 people, while Sikkim has 37.5 suicides per 100,000 people.

The suicide rate between the ages of 21 and 30 is very high, mainly due to the high unemployment rate and the lack of hope for life, resulting in about 7 out of every 10 adolescents taking drugs.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

UNODC official Kirsauer said:

Sikkim's pursuit of economic development has affected the interests of the people and ignored the needs of society.

It can be seen that Sikkim's population growth is not much better than the local development, but it is possible that some immigrants have alleviated the embarrassing situation faced by Sikkim.

Similar reasons were indeed found in other data:

According to 2018 statistics, Sikkim's GDP is about 20.6 billion yuan, ranking third from the bottom in India, but its per capita GDP is second only to Goa and the capital New Delhi, ranking third.

This is obviously counterintuitive, mainly because India allocates a large amount of money every year for poverty alleviation, which accounts for about 30% of the government budget, and virtually increases per capita income.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

In terms of industrial structure, Sikkim's infrastructure is relatively weak, industrial development is not smooth, and traditional agriculture has always been the main source of income for the people.

In the modern world, it is difficult to boost the economy with pure agriculture, and if Sikkim is allowed to develop on its own, the region's economy may slowly transform.

However, India's seedling-fueled intervention has brought the market size into the next stage in advance, but the people have no stable income to match it, resulting in a low level of consumption for most people.

In this context, Sikkim's growing population has strained the already limited scope of employment, with many people unable to find jobs for several years and relying on government handouts.

With no hope of moving forward, people are willing to fall into the illusion of drug production.

When they find out that they really have nothing, they can only end their lives by death.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

India gives Sikkim a lot of money and all kinds of support every year, and on the surface it attaches great importance to Sikkim, but is it really the case?

In 2017, armed conflict broke out in West Bengal.

As a result, the only road from India to Sikkim was completely blocked, and supplies could not be delivered, and the life of the Sikkim people returned to its primitive state.

As time went on, this dilemma remained unresolved and people in Sikkim were terrified.

Sikkim Minister Chamling couldn't resist speaking out in the Hindustan Times, saying that "the people of Sikkim do not want to be a sandwich caught between violent conflicts".

It was one of the few statements made by the Sikkim leader, but he was quick to say that he was not disloyal to India, as if he had scruples.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

Judging from the various supportive policies implemented by India, it seems that it hopes that Sikkim will develop better.

However, the development of a city has a lot to do with the perfection of local infrastructure, and transportation routes are the "lifeline" of the economy.

If India is willing to allocate a lot of money every year, why can't it think of building another road to Sikkim?

If we combine the various manifestations of India after the occupation of Sikkim, it is easy to see the clues, India does not want to develop Sikkim, but wants to silence the Sikkimese people.

India has been busy with the Sikkim issue for decades, not only sending troops to station, but also sending money and business opportunities, which can be said to have paid a very big price.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

Summary:

The Sikkimese people have gone through the process of invasion and extinction of the country, and even the indigenous people have reached the point of extinction.

Perhaps when looking back at history, people no longer remember the past of Sikkim, but the tangible words will always remember that time.

The history of Sikkim's demise is thought-provoking, and it also highlights how hard-won it was for the Chinese nation to climb all the way to the world's second largest economy from being invaded.

India's annexation of a country now costs a lot every year! Why were countries silent at that time?

Resources

"How loyal is Sikkim to India 42 years after its annexation?"

"The Fall of Sikkim, a Chinese Vassal: Swallowed by the Indian Army in 1975", Phoenix Military

"Sikkim's only 'lifeline' in India is blocked, officials complain about the miserable situation of the people" Global Network

"Sikkim Aborigines, Almost Extinct" The Paper

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