Prevention and management of diabetes
Diabetes is a common chronic metabolic disease with a rising prevalence worldwide. The prevention and management of diabetes is essential for an individual's health. This article will explore the relevant knowledge of diabetes in depth from both prevention and management aspects, and provide some practical suggestions.
1. Common symptoms and diagnosis methods of diabetes
1. Common symptoms of diabetes
Common symptoms of diabetes include polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia. Drinking more refers to frequent thirst, always feeling dry mouth and thirsty throat; Polyuria refers to a marked increase in urine output, especially nocturnal frequency; The appetite of the index finger increased significantly, but the weight decreased.
2. Diagnostic methods of diabetes
Common methods of diagnosing diabetes include the following:
(1) Fasting blood glucose test: After fasting for at least 8 hours, measure the fasting blood glucose level. If the fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), diabetes is diagnosed.
(2) Glycated hemoglobin detection: The average blood glucose level in the past 2-3 months is assessed by measuring the content of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the blood. If the HbA1c level is greater than or equal to 6.5%, diabetes can be diagnosed.
(3) Oral glucose tolerance test: the patient drinks a certain amount of glucose solution on an empty stomach, and then measures the blood glucose level after 2 hours. Diabetes is diagnosed if the blood glucose level after 2 hours is greater than or equal to 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL).
In addition to the above common diagnostic methods, doctors may also determine whether diabetes is based on the patient's symptoms, family history, and other relevant test results.
Second, the prevention of diabetes
1. Reasonable diet: diet is an important part of diabetes prevention. It is recommended to choose low-sugar, low-fat, high-fiber foods, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, etc. At the same time, avoid excessive intake of high-sugar, high-fat foods, such as candy, sweet drinks, fried foods, etc.
2. Weight control: Obesity is one of the risk factors for diabetes. Maintaining a proper weight can help prevent diabetes. It is recommended to control weight through a reasonable diet and moderate exercise.
3. Active exercise: Moderate physical exercise can improve the body's metabolic level, increase insulin sensitivity, and help prevent the occurrence of diabetes. It is recommended to do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, such as cycling or brisk walking.
4. Quit smoking and alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the risk factors for diabetes. Studies have shown that smoking and drinking alcohol increase the risk of diabetes. Therefore, not smoking and drinking alcohol is very important to prevent diabetes.
3. Management of diabetes
1. Regular checkups: For people who already have diabetes, it is important to check blood sugar levels regularly. By monitoring blood sugar, the treatment plan can be adjusted in time to control blood sugar within the normal range.
2. Reasonable diet: For diabetics, a reasonable diet is the basis for managing diabetes. It is recommended to choose low-sugar, low-fat, high-fiber foods, control the total amount of diet, and avoid excessive carbohydrate intake.
3. Drug treatment: For some diabetics, diet and exercise to control blood sugar may not be enough, and complementary drug treatment is required. Common medications include oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulin injections.
4. Mental health: Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires long-term treatment. Patients may face some psychological stress and distress. Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to mental health, and stress can be relieved by communicating with family, friends, participating in some small recreational activities, etc.
5. Regular exercise: Moderate physical activity is equally important for people with diabetes. Exercise can help control blood sugar levels, increase insulin sensitivity, and prevent and improve diabetes-related complications.
4. Other symptoms of diabetes
1. Complications of diabetes: Diabetic patients are prone to a series of complications in the long-term state of hyperglycemia, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, eye disease, etc. It is important for people with diabetes to understand how to prevent and treat complications.
2. Dietary control of diabetes: Diabetics need to control their diet and avoid excessive intake of carbohydrates and high-sugar foods. Understanding the dietary control principles of diabetes can help patients better manage their diabetes.
3. Research on new drugs for diabetes: With the advancement of science and technology, the treatment methods of diabetes are constantly updated. Understanding the progress of new drug research for diabetes can help patients better choose treatment options.
To sum up, the prevention and management of diabetes need to be considered comprehensively from diet, exercise, drug treatment, mental health and other aspects.
Through reasonable prevention and management measures, the occurrence and development of diabetes can be effectively controlled and the quality of life can be improved. At the same time, strengthening the understanding of diabetes-related knowledge can help patients better manage diabetes and prevent complications.
 Leslie Lee, Wenhui Wang. Research progress on diabetes complications[J]. Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine, 2008, 47(6): 492-495.