Before reading this article, I sincerely invite you to click "Follow", which is convenient for you to discuss and share, and brings you a different sense of participation, thank you for your support.
"Cars and boats should be killed if they are not guilty", this saying appeared thousands of years ago, widely spread among the people, and is still well remembered by many people.
You may wonder, who exactly does this car and boat shop refer to, and why can it cause so much resentment among the people that innocent people should be killed?
(Pier in the early years)
First, ancient times provoked anger and resentment, and modern society is still widespread
"Car and boat shop foot teeth" refers to people in five professions, namely coachman, boatman, shop junior, porter and dental shop.
They are the types of people who must be contacted by ancient people when they go far away, but due to the special nature of their work, ordinary people often suffer losses in their hands, and under word of mouth, the reputation of these types of people can be described as extremely foul. To this day, many people shy away from them.
For example, coachmen and boatmen, until now are all kinds of drivers, even now, when the security situation is so good, everyone can still occasionally see some related news, such as drivers detour to charge indiscriminately, and even violate female passengers.
Black shop and shop Xiao Er, in ancient times, were generally divided into two types, one was lighter to steal property while the customer was asleep, or to give drugs. The heavier ones are direct killing. In modern times, due to the better and better security environment, the black shops that were directly robbed are basically gone, but the high-priced souvenirs, jade or high-priced food of tourists in the scenic pit can still be often seen in the news.
Porters, in ancient times, generally helped pick things or move at the dock, but in modern times, similar to the Chongqing area of Lollipop or moving companies, the situation of cheating customers is not so serious.
Dental trade, in ancient times, was the second-tier trafficker in charge of a certain type of goods, dealers, and also referred to human traffickers. In modern times, they have become merchants or human traffickers who bully the market.
Even after thousands of years, in today's society, such people are still annoying, let alone ancient. As early as the Ming Dynasty's "Zengguangxian Wen", it was recorded that "customers do not leave the goods, and wealth is not exposed".
So how much did these people do in ancient times?
Second, the porter of the car and boat in "Water Margin"
Coachmen, boatmen and porters are all service industries that rely on strength to eat.
Unlike today's taxis, car dealers do not run short distances, but long distances. Generally, only wealthy businessmen can afford to hire a car. In the beginning, acquaintances were hired to pull cars, but later merchants were no longer officially suppressed, resulting in greater demand for long-distance car dealers.
As early as the Spring and Autumn period more than 2,000 years ago, horse-drawn carriage travel gradually became popular, and Confucius used to travel around the world in a horse-drawn carriage. However, it was not until the Song Dynasty that the common people were gradually able to ride in ox carts and horse-drawn carts.
Hiring strangers to pull cars has gradually become the norm, and generally there will be special car shop owners in various places, gathering a group of people to monopolize the car pulling business in a region.
The coachman needs to pull the guests for a long time, from a few days to dozens of days. From receiving guests to leaving a crowded city, you can basically get a clear understanding of the bottom of a car of people.
Coachmen with less courage generally steal guests' belongings and take advantage of the guests' belongings when staying at night.
The bolder coachman directly pulls people to the agreed bandit den, and then receives a certain remuneration from the bandits, both of which are not very risky for the coachman, and the coachman will not kill directly.
However, some people see the wealth and want to go it alone, and it is easy to have accidents.
The short-footed tiger Wang Ying in "Water Margin", before going up Liangshan, was a car in the car dealership, and later pulled people halfway, saw the wealth, and was later arrested after being discovered, and only then escaped from prison to Qingfeng Mountain to become a bandit.
(Short-footed tiger Wang Ying)
Car shops have existed for a very long time and have a great influence over the ages. Different from today's developed water transportation, ancient waterways are extremely easy to be in danger, so whether it is passenger or freight, land vehicles are absolutely the majority.
However, since many cities in ancient times were built on the banks of rivers, shipping has always existed.
The situation of the boatman is similar to that of the coachman, and when some major roads need to cross the river, the boatman pulls the guest to the middle of the river, often revealing his true face.
Generally, those who only want to seek wealth can pull people to the center of the lake, sit on the ground and start the price, and let the guests give more silver. The worse ones are directly all, generally mainly for guests who leak money.
For example, in "Water Margin", Song Jiang once encountered being robbed by a boatman, and even let Song Jiang choose by himself, whether he wanted "wontons" or "plate knife noodles".
The wonton is to call out all the money and clothes by himself, jump into the water by himself, and the plate knife face is directly hacked to death with a few knives, and then thrown into the river.
When the ship arrives at the dock, the general merchant will deal with all kinds of porters. There are more ways for porters to pit people, generally those who need porters are people with a lot of luggage, and the road will not be too close, and it is good to shout more money halfway, and it is not uncommon to directly grab goods and kill.
These three types of people often have fixed territories, and these territories are not anyone can do business, and in ancient times it was often a monopoly system, which is now known as the underworld to grab land.
When ordinary businessmen encountered, most of them broke their wealth and eliminated disasters, because more people were robbed, and naturally, the reputation of such people became worse and worse.
3. "shop" and "tooth" with different meanings
The meanings of "shop" and "tooth" in "Che Boat Shop Foot Teeth" are ambiguous.
Shop generally refers to the shop Xiao Er who sees the wind and rudder. Sometimes although it is a normal store, the shop Xiaoer will often obstruct it, ushering in the sending, and specifically picking soft persimmons.
The guests stole their belongings at best, and the worst were robbed by the shopkeepers in collusion with bandits after going out, and their lives were not saved.
Another said shop also refers to a black shop, robbing guests of their belongings, and even the customer's body is not uncommon. Zhang Qing and Sun Erniang, who sell human meat buns in "Water Margin", are representatives, as long as the guests do not have much background, they will directly sweat medicine to turn people over.
Dental lines also have two directions. The dental line is now the intermediary, but it is differentiated by different behaviors.
Why did people in ancient times hate dental trades, forced buying and selling, shoddy charging is only a general situation, and even more so, direct trafficking of people, people hate.
In ancient times, when you went out, the poor knew that their wealth was not exposed, but they were often alone or dragged their families out, even if you had no money, you were vulnerable to these people's murder.
Behind them, there are buyers who give high prices early, some ask for children, some want women, and some want men who can work hard, so these people look for targets everywhere and go straight to a secluded place. They are generally arrogant, and the Yamen is rarely in charge, because the buyers behind them are generally very powerful.
The other is the dental industry that bullies the market. The original dental company played the role of a middleman, such as Zhang Shun in "Water Margin", the fish tooth, he took fish from fishermen, and then sold it to a market to sell the fish, from which to earn the difference.
Later, there were official teeth and private teeth. In the Qing Dynasty, in order to regulate the market and facilitate taxation, officials established official teeth and abolished private teeth.
As the name suggests, Guanya is the officially appointed person and channel, and people in the official market can only take goods from Guanya and sell them. Private teeth are the channels opened up by some people with prestige and reputation.
Therefore, in general, private teeth are more popular and inexpensive.
However, after the Qing Dynasty set up official teeth and suppressed private teeth, it didn't take long for the people to complain. Behind the official monopoly, corruption will inevitably lead to corruption, and in the face of high-priced daily necessities, the people's life can be described as miserable.
However, the official tooth appeared in the Qing Dynasty, and "the foot teeth of the car and boat shop, the innocent should be killed", but it is a common saying in the early years, and this tooth may represent more to the abducted profiteers and the tooth mother-in-law who abducted people.
(Late Ming Dynasty "Dental Shop Exchange Silver")
Fourth, going out is like nine nine eighty-one difficulties
It is the so-called "rely on parents at home, rely on friends when you go out".
In ancient times, it was not better than now, there was no telephone, the traffic was not developed, the towns were separated very far away, to go far away, that road was basically outside the monitoring range, even if you went to the next city to join relatives and friends, most of the road had to walk alone.
It is easy for thieves to rob the road on the mountain, over a mountain, and finally see a shop on the side of the road, and you have to worry about whether it is a black shop that kills people and crosses goods, even if it is a serious store, you have to worry that money cannot be exposed, so as not to be consumed by the profit of the store or the shop,
Whether it is students entering Beijing to rush for the exam, merchants transporting goods, or ordinary people dragging their families to their relatives, it is inevitable that they will have to deal with these people.
Taking the more familiar entry into Beijing to rush for the exam as an example, in ancient times, students had to concentrate on studying all day long, and most of them had no chicken power, especially in the south far from the capital, entering Beijing to rush for the exam basically belonged to nine deaths.
Candidates from today's Sichuan, Guangdong and other places to go to the capital, basically need to walk for about three months, the most common occurrence along the way is entanglement stolen or robbed.
Generally, candidates do not deal with coachmen, porters and dentists, but from south to north, they must deal with boatmen and shopkeepers.
A poor scholar with no chicken in his hands, he still has a coil on his body, and no matter where he goes, he is a big piece of fat meat.
In the familiar "Liaozhai Zhi Wei", most of the protagonists of the story are poor scholars and female goblins, because of various reasons, the money on their bodies, or stolen or robbed, needs the help of the heroine to go to the capital.
(Ning Caichen, a scholar who went to Beijing to rush for the exam)
And behind this is the business of pit people such as the foot teeth of the car and boat shop.
Time has passed, and although these industries are now more standardized, they can still occasionally see some reports of illegal crimes. When you go out, remember not to show your money, boys and children, learn to protect themselves.
TAN Ruwei. What is the "tooth" of "foot teeth of Chechuan shop"[J]. Language and Text.
WANG Xuetai. "Water Margin" Character Theory of Rivers and Lakes (No. 10) Beings on Rivers and Lakes[J]. Social Science Forum, 2010(23):28.