I. Historical background of the Malacana Bridge incident in January 1899
The historical background between the United States and the Philippines dates back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the Philippines was a Spanish colony.
In 1898, the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War, gaining some territory, including the Philippines, which the United States colonized in order to control these areas.
During colonial rule, the United States implemented controversial policies and measures against the Philippines, the main purpose of which was to control and exploit Philippine resources and manpower, while compromising with the colonial ideology of the time.
The United States exercises military occupation and domination in the Philippines, using the Philippines as an important overseas base.
The United States sent a large number of troops and police into the Philippines to maintain its colonial rule and combat the anti-Philippine movement, which led to an increase in discontent and confrontation among the Filipino population.
The country has introduced a series of political and cultural reforms, including English education and the promotion of the Christian faith, which, while sometimes beneficial, have led to the destruction and loss of indigenous Filipino culture.
The United States has carried out large-scale economic exploitation and plunder in the Philippines, including hegemony and monopoly of local resources, exploitation of Philippine minerals and raw materials, and exploitation of local labor, which not only led to the collapse of the Philippine economy, but also exacerbated poverty and dissatisfaction among the Philippine population.
During colonial rule, the United States used military means to ensure control and domination of the Philippines, and the United States sent a large number of troops and police to the Philippines, establishing a series of military bases and facilities.
At the same time, the United States also implemented the "Buffalo Act," forcing Filipino farmers to use their buffaloes to help transport U.S. troops and supplies.
The United States promotes English-language education to replace the use of Filipino, and it seeks to introduce Western democratic institutions and values to strengthen its dominance in the Philippines, while also trying to promote the Christian faith to weaken the influence of indigenous Filipino religions.
In the Philippines, the United States has carried out large-scale economic exploitation and plunder, including hegemony and monopoly of local resources, exploitation of Philippine minerals and raw materials, and exploitation of local labor.
U.S. economic policies led to the collapse of the Philippine economy and resistance to U.S. colonial rule.
To strengthen its dominance in the Philippines, the United States has tried to implement agrarian reform and land distribution programs, but these programs often only complicate the problem, leading to social unrest and increased land disputes.
During the period of US colonial rule, the Filipino people experienced multiple problems such as economic exploitation, cultural destruction, and political oppression, which led to imbalance and division in Philippine society, and also intensified nationalist and patriotic sentiments.
The Filipino people began to doubt the intentions and commitments of the United States, questioning the so-called "civilized mission" and "liberal democracy" of the United States.
During World War II, the actions of the United States in the Philippines further exacerbated the Filipino people's distrust and antipathy towards the United States, and the US military carried out a number of cruel and uncontrolled acts, including large-scale bombing, collective punishment, forced labor, sexual assault, etc.
These acts have seriously violated the dignity and rights of the Filipino people and aroused widespread protests and anger.
In addition, the US military presence and intervention in the political situation in the Philippines in recent years have also exacerbated anti-American sentiment among the Filipino people, and the continued presence and expansion of US military bases and facilities in the Philippines have aroused the concern and antipathy of the local population.
The United States is also trying to promote its strategic interests in the Asia-Pacific region by meddling in the political situation in the Philippines and taking advantage of the geographical location of the Philippines, which has aroused dissatisfaction and disgust among the local people.
II. Overview of the Maracana Bridge incident
The incident at the Malacán Bridge began on February 22, 1986, when the military forces of the Ferdinand Marcos government arrested Jeannea Aquino and his wife.
This led to a strong reaction from civil society organizations and left-wing forces in the Philippines, who organized massive protests and demonstrations in the following days.
On February 25, 1986, the Marcos regime collapsed as army soldiers opened fire on demonstrators and a new president, Jennifer Aquino, came to power.
The incident mainly took place at the Kafipolcan shopping center in Manila, the capital of the Philippines, and the nearby Maracana Palace.
Here, large crowds gathered and demonstrated to call for President Marcos to step down and support the inauguration of new President Jeanifa Aquino, during which there were skirmishes and blockades.
The Ferdinand Marcos government considered Alexis and Jennifer Aquino to be anti-government elements at the time and arrested them upon their return to the Philippines.
Civil society organizations and left-wing forces in the Philippines played an important role in the incident, organizing demonstrations, strikes and other forms of protests, calling on President Marcos to step down and support the inauguration of the new president, Jennifer Aquino.
The Philippine military and government officials played a vital role in the changing political situation, and during the coup, a number of skirmishes and blockades broke out, but the coup eventually led to a peaceful transition.
One of the victors of this event was Jennifer Aquino, who became the new president of the Philippines after the Maracana Bridge incident.
Broad popular participation played an important role, with large numbers of people demonstrating in the streets to call for Marcos to step down, while many ordinary people spread the news of the incident through various channels such as social media and newspapers.
The roots of the Malacana Bridge incident date back to 1972, when Philippine President Marcos issued Constitutional Decree 1081, imposing nationwide martial law and dictatorship.
Against the backdrop of massive human rights violations, corruption, and the loss of democratic freedoms, which has left society in a state of extreme unrest, various opposition forces in the Philippines have struggled to overthrow the Marcos regime.
The incident began on February 22, 1986, when the Philippine military establishment arrested opposition figures Jennifer Aquino and his wife and held them in a barracks.
This caused public outrage among various opposition forces in the Philippines, who organized large-scale demonstrations and protests in the first few days.
As the demonstrations grew, crowds gradually converged on downtown Manila, including the Kafipolkan Mall and Maracana Palace.
During the demonstrations, skirmishes and blockades broke out between the army and demonstrators, and on February 25, President Marcos ordered the army to use force to suppress the demonstrators, leading to more intense protests.
Finally, the army began to fire at the demonstrators, resulting in many casualties, an incident that attracted global attention and triggered a dramatic change in the political situation in the Philippines.
Eventually, the Malacana Bridge incident led to the fall of the Marcos regime and the emergence of Jennifer Aquino as the new president.
Since then, the Philippine government has undertaken major reforms, re-established democracy and social order, strengthened the social welfare and education systems, and advanced various economic development programs.
These reforms have had a profound impact on the economic and social life of the Philippines, which has gradually become a stable democratic national and regional leader.
The Maracana Bridge incident also became an important event on a global scale, ultimately promoting various programs and organizations to promote human rights and democratic freedoms, making an important contribution to the future world order.
Third, the analysis and interpretation of events
The Malacana Bridge incident was finally resolved due to the forced resignation of President Marcos and his replacement by Jennifer Aquino.
The Jennifers Aquino were fierce opponents of the Marcos government, who used the opportunity of the Maracana Bridge incident to push for political change.
Politicians and diplomats around the world have also joined in their good offices and mediation efforts to help the Philippine government find a legitimate and peaceful solution.
After the incident, the Philippine government carried out major reforms, re-established democracy and social order, introduced a fair electoral system, anti-corruption mechanisms, etc., and these reforms gradually made the Philippines a stable democracy.
The Philippine government has improved the living standards and education standards of its people through various social welfare and education system programs, and they have actively promoted economic development plans and developed foreign trade, industry and tourism, so that the economy has developed rapidly.
In response, many countries and international organizations began to take action to promote human rights and democratic freedoms, promoting the transition of the Philippines to democracy and becoming a model country for democracy on a global scale.
The incident reflected the strong antipathy of the Filipino people to dictatorship, the intensification of ideological struggle, and the success of eliminating corruption and injustice in the political system, promoting cooperation among countries, and making global economic and social development more inclusive and just.
This incident proves that safeguarding civil rights and improving the level of democracy are inherent political rights, that citizens should take positive action to safeguard their basic rights and freedoms, and that freedom of expression is an indispensable part of a democratic society, so guaranteeing freedom of expression should be regarded as an important goal of law and policy making.
Events have shown that people should actively participate in the political decision-making process and that their voices are fully heard and considered.
Fourth, the impact and enlightenment on historical development
After the Maracana Bridge incident, the U.S. government publicly condemned and severed diplomatic relations with the Marcos regime, which was a major international isolation and public pressure for the dictatorship at the time.
The U.S. government has been one of the staunchest supporters of democracy and has supported the establishment of a democratic, liberal, and rule-of-law political system in the Philippines.
The event strengthened the U.S. government's support for democracy and supported the Philippines' democratic transition through economic assistance and political guidance.
Due to the adverse impact of the incident, the economic situation in the Philippines deteriorated sharply, and many foreign-funded enterprises and investors withdrew, causing a severe recession.
This event has aroused widespread attention and discussion in the Asia-Pacific region, provided a reference case for those countries and regions that have not yet achieved democratic transition, and affected the political and economic development of the entire Asia-Pacific region.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Philippines experienced colonization by the United States, Spain and Japan, and its people suffered years of exploitation, oppression and discrimination.
Behind the Malacana Bridge incident is the people's deep understanding and strong antipathy towards colonialism and imperialism, their demand for independence and autonomy, and their vigilance and resistance to the interference and control of foreign forces.
The event aroused worldwide concern and solidarity and reflected the support and understanding of the wider international community, which proved that the common quest for freedom and democracy should reject aggression and might and build a new international order based on equality and cooperation.
It provides an important historical revelation that as human societies, we should firmly uphold and promote the values and principles of democracy, freedom and human rights, oppose any form of colonialism and imperialism, and aim to establish a more just and equitable world order.
This incident has revealed the necessity and importance of settling disputes through diplomatic means, reflecting the needs and expectations of people in international relations.
Especially in the historical context of colonial rule in the Philippines at that time, the incident stimulated people's pursuit of independence, voluntary cooperation, and the preservation and defense of national sovereignty and territorial integrity.
The global condemnation and protests, as well as the reactions and support of governments to the incident, show the universal concern and importance of the international community to democracy, freedom and human rights, and this common attitude and spirit of cooperation provide strong support and guarantee for the peace and stability and economic development of the international community.
The Maracán Bridge incident offers a historic opportunity to build a more open, equitable and pluralistic international order in the context of advancing globalization and international cooperation.
This requires all governments to strengthen political and economic cooperation, promote the reform and upgrading of global governance mechanisms, strengthen people-to-people exchanges and cultural integration, and jointly build a better world.