Documenting Lu Xun's Last Hours: Japanese Writer Shikaji Wataru Released

Recently, a group of Shikaji relics and albums found in the home of Japanese writer Shikaji Wataru (1903-1982) have attracted the attention of scholars. Among these documents is a personal letter written by Lu Xun to Uchiyama Wanzao, which has become the latest discovery of Lu Xun's book in recent decades.

On the afternoon of April 1st, the "Lu Xun Important Document Exhibition" opened at the 1927 Lu Xun and Inner Mountain Memorial Book Office located on Shanyin Road, Hongkou District, Shanghai. In addition to displaying the newly discovered relics and albums of Lu Di, the exhibition also displays the raw signed copy of Mr. Lu Xun's "History of Chinese Novels" presented to Fujitsuka and the commemorative number B of Rong Desheng's old collection of "Lu Xun's Complete Works".

Mr. and Mrs. Shikaji and Mr. and Mrs. Sachiko Ikeda (Chongqing, 1939)

Lu Xun's translator and Fuling people

As early as 1932, Japanese translator Inoue Hongmei translated Lu Xun's "Scream" and "Wandering" into Japanese and submitted them to the Tokyo Reform Society for publication. Although this is the earliest Japanese translation of Lu Xun's Complete Works, it is actually only a combined translation of an "anthology". Due to the many mistranslations, Lu Xun complained about this translation in his diary.

Exhibition view, 1938 Fushe's lead print "Lu Xun's Complete Works"

Exhibition view

Another translator of Lu Xun's works is this young man named Lu Dikan. Shikaji Kan, whose real name is Seguchi Gon, graduated from Tokyo Imperial University. Because he was engaged in left-wing literary creation in Japan and participated in anti-war activities, he was brutally persecuted by the Japanese militarist authorities, and had to change his name in disguise in early 1936 and secretly board a passenger ship bound for China. After arriving in Shanghai, he was introduced by Uchiyama Wanzao, the owner of Neishan Bookstore on Sichuan Road in Hongkou, and met Lu Xun. With Lu Xun's enthusiastic help and introduction, he began to translate and introduce the literary works of young and middle-aged Chinese writers for the Japan Reform Society. At that time, Lu Diqian had already begun to translate Lu Xun's miscellaneous sense anthology, and due to the limited level of Chinese, he often encountered difficult problems in translation, and he needed to consult Lu Xun and his assistant Hu Feng.

On October 19, 1936, after Lu Xun's death in Shanghai, the Tokyo Reform Society quickly made a decision to expand the originally forthcoming collection of Lu Xun's essays into a seven-volume "The Complete Works of Great Lu Xun" and grandly launched. It is only natural that Shikaji became one of the most important translators of the book, specializing in the translation of selected essays.

Exhibition view, Ludi Qijia book "Annex", Lu Xun (L) to Uchiyama Finish (old edition) handwritten Japanese manuscript

On October 22, 1936, Lu Xun came out of the funeral, Lu Diqian as one of the Fuling people to see off his husband, at that time a tabloid once called Lu Xun Fuling twelve famous young and middle-aged writers as "Lu Xun Twelve Golden Heroes", Lu Diqian is the only Japanese person in the Fuling team. 

Testament: Record Lu Xun's visit before his death


In the letter, Lu Diqian described the situation of Lu Xun's funeral to his parents in detail, some of the details are tearful to read, such as when Lu Xun died, his only son Zhou Haibao was only eight years old, and he had not yet deeply experienced the major events of death and life. The words between the lines reveal the deep feelings and endless sorrow of this Japanese left-wing literary youth for Lu Xun. 

Ludi Jia Shu "Annex", Lu Xun (L) to Uchiyama Finish (old edition) handwritten Japanese manuscript

Among these letters, Lu Di Qi's notes are very delicate and expressive, and the "annex" of one of the family letters is even more precious, it is a Japanese personal letter written by Lu Xun to Uchiyama Wanzao, and the signature style is exactly the same as the "Lu Xun to Uchiyama Complete Book" three links included in the 8th volume of the "Lu Xun Complete Manuscripts", the upper paragraph is titled "Old Edition", and the lower paragraph is signed "L" (pen name Lu Xun's initials), which is also Lu Xun's Japanese script, which is the first time that Lu Xun's ink has been found in public and private Lu Xun inkblots seen in recent decades. Although the date is not given, it is not difficult to infer that this letter was written on the twenty-sixth day of August in 1936, when Lu Diqian began to translate Lu Xun's anthology of essays. More importantly, the letter also mentioned that after Lu Xun reviewed the translation of the article "On Photography and the Like" (the Japanese translation is entitled "Portrait の類"), he suggested to his friend Uchiyama Wanzo that he might as well show the translation to Lu Di Kan, if Lu Di Kan wanted another translation, he could refer to this translation.

This Japanese short letter "Annex" of Lu Xun's handbook is undoubtedly the most valuable Lu Xun ink object found in recent years for exploring the completion of the seven-volume "Complete Works of Great Lu Xun" of the Reform Society. Lu Xun's appreciation, trust, and promotion of the young Japanese left-wing literary Lu Dikan are implicitly revealed in this short journal, and it is touching to read to this day. 

Album: Lu Xun under Sha Fei's lens

On October 8, 1936, Lu Xun went to visit the Second National Woodcut Joint Mobile Exhibition held by the Baxian Bridge YMCA in Shanghai, and had a cordial discussion with young printmakers. In the Ludi family photo album, there is a frame recording Mr. Lu Xun's participation in this exhibition, which is obviously printed from the same negative as the person included in the "Lu Xun Photo Collection", and the panelists are from left: Lu Xun, Lin Fu, Cao Bai, Bai Wei, Chen Yanqiao. There is also a frame of Sachiko Kachi and Sachiko Ikeda posing with young printmakers, front row: Sachiko Ikeda and Mr. and Mrs. Shikaji, and back row: Lin Fu, Huang Xinbo, Chen Yanqiao, Bai Wei, and Li Qun. These two photographs were taken by the famous war photographer Mr. Sha Fei, and both sides are inscribed with the inscription "11.10.8th", which is the 11th year of Showa (1936) in Japan. 

From left: Lu Xun, Lin Fu, Cao Bai, Bai Wei, Chen Yanqiao Photo by Sha Fei

Front row: Sachiko Ikeda, Mr. and Mrs. Luji, back row: Lin Fu, Huang Xinbo, Chen Yanqiao, Bai Wei, Liqun Sha Fei

 The Ludi family album also features a photo of Kajikan, Sachiko Ikeda, Hu Feng, and Kazuo Goto, with a street sign behind them that reads "DARROCH ROAD," where the couple live in Hongkou, Shanghai. This mailing address can also be seen on the actual mailing envelope of the Ludi family letter.

From left: Hu Feng, Sachiko Ikeda, Kazuo Kachi, Kazuo Goto (first from right), photographed at the apartment of Mr. and Mrs. Luji in Hongkou

As one of the consultants of the Tokyo Reform Society's seven-volume "The Complete Works of Great Lu Xun", Hu Feng not only compiled a selection of Lu Xun's essays for Lu Dikan, but also often had to explain and interpret the original text of Lu Xun's works to Lu Dikan, who had limited Chinese level, and wrote brief Japanese solutions.

Two days before Mr. Lu Xun's death, his diary on October 17 clearly recorded: "In the afternoon, Tonggu did not visit Ludijun. To Uchiyama Bookstore. The "Gu Fei" mentioned in the diary is Hu Feng. That day, Hu Feng went to Lu Di Qi's house, and Lu Di Qian asked Hu Feng many difficult questions in translation. Hu Feng was afraid that he would not be able to explain clearly, so he went directly to ask Lu Xun, Lu Xun was afraid that he would not be able to convey clearly, and went to Ludiqian's house with Hu Feng to explain it directly to Ludiqian. It was because of this outing that Lu Xun suffered from the cold, which worsened his condition, and unfortunately passed away on October 19, two days later.

Exhibition view

After the outbreak of the "August 13 Incident" in 1937, with the total fall of Shanghai, the Ludi couple were once regarded as Japanese spies, and they were in a dilemma for a while. Later, under the introduction of Hu Feng, Lu Diqian participated in the symposium on the construction of anti-Japanese war literature and art organized by "July" magazine many times, which was undoubtedly Hu Feng's identification of Lu Diqian and his wife's identity as anti-fascist international friends on the cultural front, which greatly relieved the mental pressure of Lu Diqian and his wife.

There are also two Japanese newspaper clippings in the Ludi family photo album, both of which are news events about Hu Feng reported by the Japanese media after Lu Di returned to China, and Lu Di Kan's concern for his old mentor Hu Feng was fully expressed. 

Uchiyama and Dr. Sudo in the widow

There are also two letters written by Lu Xun's best friend, Uchiyama Bookstore owner Uchiyama Shuzo, and attending physician Sudo 503, to Shikaji Kan's father, sinologist Makiro Seguchi, in which they briefly introduced their impressions of Shikaji and the general situation of translating the Complete Works of Dalu Xun.

Uchiyama Shoten, owner of Uchiyama Shoten, is not only the introducer of Lu Xun to come to China and meet Lu Xun, but also one of the consultants of the Tokyo Reconstruction Society's "The Complete Works of Dai Lu Xun". Located in Wei Shengli, Hongkou, Shanghai (now Lane 1881, North Sichuan Road), the bookstore was one of the most important places of activity in Shanghai in his later years, and since 1932 it has been an agent and distribution store for Lu Xun's works, and it is also a place where Lu Xun took refuge and secretly received guests. Located in Hongkou District, Neishan Bookstore, as an important historical landmark of modern Chinese literature, has witnessed the friendship between left-wing literary writers in China and Japan.

Sudo 503 was the attending doctor of Lu Xun's last career, and he had to treat Lu Xun almost every day during his serious illness. After Lu Xun's death, Dr. Sudo published an article entitled "Mr. Lu Xun as seen by medical practitioners" in the Japanese newspaper Shanghai Daily (October 20, 1936) and the Chinese magazine "Writer", with an appendix "Mr. Lu Xun's Illness". The letterhead written by Sudo 503 to Kachi Wataru's father, Makiro Seguchi, was printed with the mailing address of Sudo Hospital "No.108 MILLER ROAD. SHANGHAI 108 Miller Road, Shanghai".

 Mr. Lu Xun holds a raw edge signed copy presented to Fujitsuka

In September 1925, Mr. Lu Xun reprinted his old work "A History of Chinese Novels", which was issued by Beixin Bookstore presided over by Li Xiaofeng, with a raw edge single book with Mr. Lu Xun's ink inscription: "Fengcheng / Mr. Fujitsuka / Lu Xun / January 27, 1926 / Beijing." "Lu Xun" Zhu Wen Xiaoyin.

"Mr. Fujitsuka" is a Japanese sinologist Fujitsuka Rin, who was appointed as a professor at Nagoya High School in Japan in 1922, and later a professor at Keijo University in North Korea. During his stay in Beijing, he visited Mr. Lu Xun with Yong Zhideyi, which was first recorded in the "Lu Xun Diary" [1923.1.7]: "Seven days, the dawn. Week off. In the afternoon, Ihara, Fujitsuka, Nagaji, and He Sijun came, each presented a copy of the "Miscellaneous Books of the Past Books of Huiji Gun", and did not give Fujitsuka-kun a point of Tangshi Jingtuo. ”

Diary (1923.11.14): "Fourteen days, Tan. Maruyama came and handed over to Professor Fujitsuka with 80 copies of the "Popular Tadashi Water Margin" and "Gleaning", and 15 copies of the "Annotated Interpretation of the Water Margin". ”

In order to thank Fujitsuka for his book donation, on January 27, 1926, Mr. Lu Xun signed and reprinted the old work "History of Chinese Novels", which was sent out on February 8, "Diary" [February 8, 1926]: "Eight days, sunny. In the morning, he wrote a copy of "A History of Chinese Novels" by Yodo Tsuka-kun. "This is the raw edge monobook contained in the Diary. 

In 1938, the lead print "The Complete Works of Lu Xun" was restored, commemorative B, No. 172, with a nanmu book box

The "Complete Works of Lu Xun" published in 1938 launched two commemorative editions, A and B, of which the second kind of skin spine gilding, printed with heavy Daolin paper, thirty-two open, the second Song body "Lu Xun's Complete Works" four characters, the top brushed gold, the copyright page is a vertical red wire frame, with "Lu Xun" white text copyright printing, and marked commemorative book No. ×, number printed 200 sets, not for sale, the whole set of Nan wood box, the cover of the book box is engraved with Cai Yuanpei's handwriting: 'Lu Xun's Complete Works', engraved in Yin text, solemn and simple. The commemorative copy of Rong Desheng's old collection on display this time, numbered 172, is this book, and the original box is preserved as new. In addition, a letter was sent by members of the Administrative Council of the Central People's Government to Rong Desheng, and a small blue square seal was attached with a "secret document". Rong Desheng and Rong Yiren father and son are famous patriotic industrialists in modern Chinese history, who saved the country through industry and actively supported the revolutionary cause of the Communist Party.

The Government Council of the Central People's Government sent a secret letter to Rong Desheng, and the "secret document" was printed with a small blue square seal

The exhibition is directed by Shanghai Poster Industry Group, hosted by Xinmin Evening News and the Publicity Department of Hongkou District Party Committee, and is free and open to the public. 

Lu Xun Important Document Exhibition

Session: April 1 to 9 (10 am to 4 pm)

Location: 1927 Lu Xun and Inner Mountain Memorial Book Office (2056 North Sichuan Road)

(This article is from The Paper, for more original information, please download the "The Paper" APP)

Read on