How did the small European country Slovenia manage to become independent among the great powers?
Slovenia is a small country in central Europe, with an area of less than 20,000 square kilometers and a population of less than 2 million, however, in 1991 Slovenia successfully separated from Yugoslavia and became an independent country.
This is a remarkable achievement, as Slovenia faces enormous pressure from the great powers, including the Yugoslav federal government and other powers such as Italy and Germany, and this article will explore how Slovenia managed to become independent among the great powers.
Slovenia has historically been in the environment of a multi-ethnic state, during World War II, Slovenia was occupied by Nazi Germany, and after the war, Slovenia became part of the Yugoslav Federation.
Slovenia experienced a period of prosperity under the Yugoslav Federation, however, Yugoslavia began to disintegrate in the late 1980s, during which tensions between the Yugoslav federal government and the Slovenian government began to escalate.
In 1989, a series of demonstrations and political unrest in Yugoslavia triggered the dissolution of the Yugoslav Federation, in which Slovenia also played an important role.
In April 1990, Slovenia became the first Yugoslav republic to declare independence, a move strongly opposed by the Yugoslav federal government and sparking a series of conflicts and wars.
Slovenia's path to independence
In 1991, Slovenia successfully gained independence after a short period of war, and the process of Slovenian independence mainly involved the following aspects.
First, the Slovenian government needed to garner support internationally, and in the early years of independence, Slovenia received attention and support from European powers.
The European Community (now the European Union) played an important role in the process of Slovenia's independence. The European Union had provided economic and political support to Slovenia and had played a mediating role in the settlement of the Yugoslav crisis, in addition to which Slovenia had sought support from other countries, such as the United States and Canada.
Second, the Slovenian government needed to form its own army to protect the country's security, and the Slovenian government quickly formed its own army and trained it in the early years of independence.
This army played an important role in the Slovenian War of Independence against troops from the Yugoslav federal government.
Third, the Slovenian government needed to negotiate with the Federal Government of Yugoslavia, which, in the early years of independence, tried to control Slovenia by force.
However, after a period of war and conflict, the Yugoslav Federal Government had to start negotiations with the Slovenian Government, and finally, in July 1991, the Yugoslav Federal Government recognized Slovenia's independence.
There are many reasons why Slovenia succeeded in gaining independence. Here are some of the success factors:
The swift action of the Slovenian Government
The swift actions taken by the Slovenian government in the early years of independence, by assembling their own army and seeking support from the international community, provided key guarantees for Slovenia to emerge from the Yugoslav crisis.
Slovenia had received broad support from the international community, which had played an important role in its successful independence, with the European Union playing a key role in resolving the Yugoslav crisis and countries such as the United States and Canada.
Consultation and negotiation
Despite the military measures taken by the Slovenian government to defend the country, the final settlement was reached through consultation and negotiation. Several rounds of negotiations between the Slovenian government and the Federal Government of Yugoslavia culminated in an agreement.
The recognition of Slovenia's independence by the Federal Government of Yugoslavia shows that the Slovenian Government can succeed through consultation and negotiation.
National consciousness and unity
During the War of Independence, Slovenia's national consciousness and unity played a crucial role, and the Slovenian people united in support of the government's independent actions, and this national consciousness and unity helped Slovenia to defeat the army of the Yugoslav federal government.
Slovenia's geopolitical factors also contributed to its successful independence, and as one of the most developed republics in the Yugoslav federation, Slovenia had greater economic and political power than any other republic.
In addition, Slovenia borders countries such as Italy and Austria, which makes it easier to get international support.
In general, Slovenia's successful independence from the Yugoslav federation was the result of the joint efforts of its Government, its people and the international community, which had acted swiftly to form its own army and sought support from the international community.
The support and assistance of the international community had also made an important contribution to Slovenia's independence, and the Slovenian Government had demonstrated its diplomatic competence by resolving the Yugoslav crisis through consultations and negotiations.
1、Ramet, S. P. (2006). The disintegration of Yugoslavia: An overview. Journal of Peace Research, 33(2), 145-153.
2、Šabič, Z. (2009). Slovenian independence and the role of the European community. Contemporary European History, 18(2), 229-246.