Analysis: About the habitat, behavior and reproduction of bone fish
Most of the world's fish are divided into two categories: teleost fish and cartilaginous fish.
In simple terms, the bones of Osteichthyes are made of bone, while the bones of chondrichthyes are made of soft, elastic cartilage. The third type of fish, including eels and hagfish, is a school of fish known as Agnatha or jawless fish.
Cartilaginous fish include sharks, rays and rays. Almost all other fish species are teleost fish, including more than 50,000 species.
Trivia: Teleost fish
Scientific name: teleost fish, ray-finned fish
Common names: teleost fish, ray-finned fish, and leaf-finned fish
Basic animal group: fish
Dimensions: From less than half an inch to 26 feet long
Weight: Less than an ounce to 5,000 pounds
Lifespan: Months to 100 years or more
Diet: Carnivores, omnivores, herbivores
Habitat: Polar, temperate and tropical marine waters and freshwater environments
Conservation status: Some species are critically endangered and extinct.
All teleost fish have sutures in the neural skull, and segmented fin bars are extracted from the epidermis.
Both teleost fish and cartilaginous fish breathe through their gills, but teleost fish also have a hard bone plate on their gills. This feature is called "operculum". Teleost fish may also have distinct rays or spines on their fins.
Unlike cartilaginous fish, teleost fish have swimming sacs or air sacs to regulate their buoyancy. Cartilaginous fish, on the other hand, have to swim constantly to float.
Teleost fish are considered to be members of the order Teleost fish, which in turn is divided into two main types of teleost fish:
Ray-finned or actress-finned fish
Leaf-finned fish, or flesh-finned fish, including coelacanth and lungfish.
The suborder Fin Fish consists of approximately 25,000 species, all of which are characterized by the presence of enamel on the teeth. They have a central axis of bone that serves as a unique skeletal support for the fins and limbs, and their upper jaws are fused with the skull.
There are two broad groups of fish: Ceratodontiformes (or lungfish) and Coelacanthiformes (or coelacanth), once thought to be extinct.
Actinopterygii comprises 33,000 species in 453 families. They are found in all aquatic habitats and range in size from less than half an inch to more than 26 feet. Molas weigh more than 5,000 pounds.
Members of this suborder have enlarged pectoral fins and fused ventral fins.
Species include the genus Cartilaginous Squays, which are primitive finfinned bony fish; Whole order or suborder Neufin, intermediate ray-finned fish, such as sturgeon, white sturgeon, and dipfin; True bony fish or newfin fish, high-grade teleost fish such as herring, salmon and sea bass.
Habitat and distribution
Teleost fish can be found in waters around the world, both in fresh and salt water, unlike cartilaginous fish that can only be found in salt water.
Marine teleost fish live in all oceans, from shallow to deep water, in cold and warm temperatures. Their lifespan ranges from a few months to more than 100 years.
An extreme example of teleost fish adaptation is the Antarctic icefish, which lives in such cold waters that antifreeze proteins circulate in its body to prevent freezing.
Teleost fish also includes almost all freshwater species that live in lakes, rivers and streams. Molas sunfish, sea bass, catfish, trout, and barracuda are examples of bony fish, as are the freshwater tropical fish you see in aquariums.
Other species of bony fish include:
Diet and behavior
Teleost fish prey depends on the species, but may include plankton, crustaceans (such as crabs), invertebrates (such as green sea urchins), and even other fish. Some species of bony fish are actually omnivores, eating a wide variety of plants and animals.
Teleost fish behave differently depending on the species. Smaller bony fish swim in schools of fish in search of protection. Some are like tuna swimming constantly, while others (stonefish and flounder) lie on the bottom of the sea most of the time.
Some, such as moray eels, only hunt at night; Some like butterflyfish do this during the day; and others are most active at dawn and dusk.
Reproduction and offspring
Some bony fish are sexually mature at birth or soon after birth; It is most mature in the first one to five years. The main mechanism of reproduction is in vitro fertilization. During the spawning season, females release hundreds or thousands of eggs in the water, and males release sperm and fertilize the eggs.
Not all bony fish spawn: some are born live. Some are hermaphroditic (the same fish has both male and female genitalia), while others bony fish change sex over time.
Some, like the hippocampus, are oviparous, meaning that the eggs are fertilized in the bodies of parents who feed them from the yolk sac. In the hippocampus, males carry offspring until they are born.
The first fish-like organisms appeared more than 500 million years ago. Teleost fish and cartilaginous fish diverged into different classes about 420 million years ago.
Cartilage species are sometimes seen as more primitive, and for good reason. The evolutionary emergence of teleost fish eventually led to terrestrial vertebrates with teleost skeletons.
The gill structure of teleost fish gills is a feature that eventually evolves into air-breathing lungs. Therefore, teleost fish are the more direct ancestor of humans.
Most teleost fish are listed as Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), but many species are vulnerable, near threatened or critically endangered, such as the deep-water zebra of Monbe in Africa.
"Teleost fish and finfish." Endangered Species International, 2011.
Pleissner, Stephanie. Fish. Florida Museum of Natural History: Ichthyology.
"Fish: A Guide to Diversity". Berkeley, University of California Press, 2014.