Prologue: An empty-handed captain
On November 24, 1944, Thanksgiving, the 21st Bombing Command stationed in Saipan sent 111 B-29 Superfortresses to bomb the Nakajima Aircraft Company Musashino factory at Kichijoji, west of Tokyo. The curtain on the bombing of Japan officially began.
However, I am not going to start a series of articles about the bombing of Japan for the time being, but to tell a series of stories caused by this bombing campaign, which makes people feel that "there is a providence in the underworld".
The book continues from above, during this bombing campaign, 17 planes were forced to return due to engine failure and fire; The A-26 was shot down by the Japanese Air Force's "Shock" force using ramming tactics, and two more crashed into the ocean south of Honshu Island, where lifesaving submarines searched the area but found nothing.
In the waters south of Honshu Island, there are 12 U.S. military submarines on life-saving missions. One of them is the Jetfish, a Whitefish-class submarine captained by Joseph A. Major E. Enright.
"Whitefish-class" submarine with hull number 311: Jetfish
The waters it patrols are privately known by officers and soldiers as the Hit Parade, and other submarines, including the Spiny Tail, have found large numbers of Japanese ships entering and leaving Tokyo Bay.
After a B-29 made a forced landing on the sea on the evening of 24 November, the "Shooting Water Fish" came to search for three days, but could not find any planes, life rafts, or wreckage.
On November 27, the Pacific Submarine Command called that no more B-29s would fly over Japan for 48 hours. This means that the Shotfish and other lifesaving submarines can loosen their ties and continue hunting enemy ships. Enright commanded his submarine to the shores of Honshu Island, dived during the day, and often raised the periscope to a high position for observation. Mt. Fuji's huge crater often floated under the crosshairs in the periscope's circular field of view, but Enright saw no worthwhile vessels, only a few trawlers and other small boats that he felt were "too small to deserve a torpedo."
Earlier in the war, Enright was captain of the submarine "Minnow" (do readers remember this submarine?). Together with the Exocet, it ambushed Kurita's middle fleet). But after a disappointing 49-day patrol in the fall of 1943, Enright decided he was not the material to command the submarine and begged Lockwood to spare him.
For the next 8 months, he spent the next 8 months doing some shore work at Midway Submarine Base. By August 1944, he was anxious to go out and try his hand at it, so Lockwood gave Enright one of the rarest gifts: a second chance to become a submarine captain. Therefore, he is more eager to achieve results than other ordinary submarine captains in the Pacific. However, he is still empty-handed. The 24 Mk18 electric torpedoes on the "Shooting Fish" are still lying in place, and none of them are moving.
At 8:48 p.m. on 27 November, the Shooting Fish's SJ radar spotted a target 24,700 yards away, with a true bearing (naval term) of 28°. So a lookout climbed onto the periscope platform and raised his telescope to observe the northern sea level.
The environment was perfect for visual search: the weather was clear, the breeze was gentle, and it was almost a full moon. Enright initially thought the target was an island, but radar scans soon revealed that it was approaching him, and the lookout immediately reported: "There is a dark shadow at sea level, 2 o'clock to the right." ”
Enright quickly recognized the faint "target point" on the horizon in the telescope. Comparing the results of visual and radar ranging, he judged that it was a big guy, probably a tanker, which was the highest priority target.
The Shooter continued to stay on the water and sail westward, trying to circle the direction of the target facing away from the moonlight. About an hour after the target was first spotted, a lookout shouted below that the target's angular profile looked like an aircraft carrier from a distance.
Enright was skeptical at first, but after observing for a while, he did. As the distance got closer, the shape of the target became more pronounced, and the huge island and chimney of the aircraft carrier protruded from the flat upper part of the hull. The base course of the target is 210 ° and the speed is 20 knots.
Mysterious giant aircraft carrier
This mysterious aircraft carrier is the Shinano, the world's largest aircraft carrier, a big guy converted from the hull of the Yamato-class battleship Hara No. 3.
Built at the shipyard at Yokosuka Naval Base in Tokyo Bay, the ship was launched on October 8 and commissioned on November 19. Since the Japanese lost three aircraft carriers in the Battle of the Mariana Sea in June of that year, the crew and 3,000 shipyard workers on board began to work 14 hours a day, seven days a week, overtime. The Japanese aircraft carrier assault fleet was once daunting, and this newly built giant ship carries Japan's last and only hope for the revival of this fleet.
The Shinano's destination is Kure Harbor, where it will be outfitted and carry carrier-based aircraft.
Captain Toshio Abe has always been worried about the warship's preparations before going to sea. Under completely unconscionable time limits, much of the work has been simplified. Many important interior facilities are unfinished or uninspected, including watertight doors, pumps, fire hoses, and ventilation ducts.
Abe had previously warned his superiors that neither the ship nor its crew was ready to go to sea, even if it was just a night's cruise along the coast.
But the higher command was indifferent, especially after this week's B-29 air strikes. They had to assume that the large aircraft carrier had already been spotted and photographed by the enemy, and that enemy bombers flying high above could return to bomb the shipyard at any time.
Therefore, the generals in Tokyo rejected Abe's request to postpone its going to sea and demanded that the "Shinano" must go to sea no later than 28 November.
Daisaku Abe, whose series of actions after the ship was shot also hastened the sinking of the aircraft carrier.
Like its sister ships Yamato and Musashi, the ship was kept under extreme secrecy during construction. On the coast of Yokosuka, the Japanese took radical measures to keep the project from being seen.
A towering corrugated plate fence was erected around Pier 6, in which the Shinano was built. Thousands of shipyard workers were detained inside the base and never allowed to go outside during construction. Any worker who even mentions the ship's name is arrested, imprisoned, interrogated and tortured by the gendarmerie.
It's really big: 872 feet long, 119 feet wide and 71,890 tons of displacement at full load. Like those two super battleships, the Shinano was equipped with four huge steam turbines that could output 150,000 horsepower to the propellers, giving it a maximum speed of 27 knots.
Its flight deck and hangar deck are armored and designed to withstand 1,000-pound bombs. Located in the middle of the starboard side, the island is the size of an office building. A huge chimney is integrated into the island, and the chimney is tilted at a large angle to the outboard, which makes the shape of the ship look a little peculiar. "Shinano" is armed with hundreds of anti-aircraft guns, more than any other aircraft carrier.
The huge angled chimney is characteristic of "Shinano"
Until the launch of the first Forrestal-class aircraft carrier in the United States in 1954, 10 years later, there was no larger carrier in the world than the Shinano.
By order, the Shinano left Tokyo Bay shortly after sunset on November 28, accompanied by three destroyers. There were 2,475 people on board, including a crew of 2,175 officers and men, and about 300 shipyard workers.
There were no planes on board, and the hangar contained 50 Sakura suicide bombs, weapons designed to be delivered by aircraft. There are also 6 "Zhenyang" suicide boats. These suicide boats will be delivered to the coast of Kure Harbor and possibly to Okinawa sometime in the future.
After consulting with his superiors, Daisaku Abe devised a detour route away from the coast. This would simplify navigation a bit, and would also be intended to avoid areas known to be infested with U.S. submarines.
In the first phase of the voyage, the carriers and destroyers will head due south to the open sea. Before dawn broke the next morning, they would turn west and sprint at high speed toward the Seto Inland Sea. The final stage would be during daylight, and the fleet would not have any air cover, but Abe could do nothing, and Tokyo would not give him a choice.
He believed he had chosen the safest route under the circumstances. The Shinano and the escort ship broke the waves on the calm moonlit sea at a speed of 20 knots and zigzag to evade enemy submarines.
In the U.S. Navy's identification manual, none of the ship's silhouettes match the Shinano in front of you. Enright and his officers believed that the unfamiliar enemy ship must be a "Flying Eagle" or "Great Phoenix" aircraft carrier.
They would never have imagined that the tonnage of their prey would be twice that of an Essex-class fleet carrier. None of the Allied camps knew any clues about the ship's existence.
A strange hunt
Three escort destroyers appeared on radar screens. After the distance was shortened, people on the periscope platform of the "Shooting Fish" were already faintly able to see them.
It was impossible to approach an enemy carrier escorted by four destroyers (even just three) on the water, especially in such bright moonlight.
However, diving will reduce the speed of the "Shooting Fish" by more than half, and it will not be able to maneuver to the attack position. The situation is not ideal.
Enright chose to turn south, sailing almost parallel to the Shinano about 9 miles in front of it and accelerating to 19 knots.
He needs some luck. The enemy ship has a speed of 20 knots, which is slightly faster than the "Shooting Fish". Once the distance is three or four miles, the submarine must dive or risk detection.
The firing window was fleeting, and if Shinano and its escort ships had not turned to the Shooter Fish while zigzagging, this firing window would not have even arrived.
On the Shinano, the radar detector captured the radio waves of the surface search radar of the Shooting Fish. Its frequency and pulse rate showed that it was American, but the radar technicians on the Shinano could not determine its location. Daisaku Abe realized that there was at least one enemy submarine nearby, but did not know its location.
Abe determined that the U.S. submarine wolves were following his ship. He relayed this information to his lookouts—25 around the carrier's flight deck and superstructure—asking them to search for submarine tracks on the surface.
At 10:45 p.m., a sharp-eyed lookout reported that "an unknown object was found on the right side of the bow." Dozens of pairs of Japanese eyes looked at the dark shadow on the sea level in the distance to the southwest.
The Japanese destroyer "Isokaze" left the formation without orders. It rushed towards the Shootfish at a speed of more than 30 knots, leaving behind a long trail of foam and fluorescence.
On the bridge of the "Shooting Fish," Enright looked at the enemy destroyer rushing from the stern direction of his boat. He correctly judged that it was a "Yangyan-class" destroyer - one of the fastest destroyers in the world at the time, with a maximum speed of more than 35 knots. He ordered the lookout post to come down from the platform and leave the bridge in full. He looked at his watch, and it was 10:50 p.m.
He raised his binoculars toward the rushing destroyer, noting that it was "getting closer and closer to the Shooting Fish, getting bigger and bigger." Good guys, that's really fast! ”。 When Enright was about to enter the hatch to order an emergency dive, he unexpectedly found that the "Isokaze" turned around and returned to the original position on the right side of the "Shinano". So the "Shooting Fish" continued to maintain its original course and remained on the surface.
It was Abe who wanted the Isokaze to return to its position. He still believed that the Shinano was being tracked by enemy submarine wolves, and he feared that the unidentified target in the south was deliberately trying to lure out one of his escort ships.
"It's a decoy, I'm sure." He told the other officers on the bridge so. He ordered to turn east, away from the "Shooting Fish". The fleet was traveling at over 20 knots, and Abe knew he had no problem throwing off the ghost.
Enright felt that he had lost his chance, but he still allowed the Shooter to break the waves at maximum speed, and the course was roughly parallel to the base course of the Shinano formation.
The Japanese ships were at least 1 knot faster than the Shootfish, so unless they turned back to the west, the Fishes had little chance of entering the attacking position. Captain Enright stroked the rosary rosary on his chest with his hand, silently praying that the enemy would turn like this.
At 11:40 p.m., the prayers took effect. "It looks like the big zigzag has turned in our direction." The submarine log recorded.
The Shinano made a sharp turn to the right, turned its course to the west, and crossed the stern of the Shooting Fish. If its next left turn is timely, the giant aircraft carrier may crash directly into the submarine's firing range.
For the next three hours, all sides kept their course. The Shinano and its three escort ships gradually crossed the stern of the "Shooting Fish" and came from the left rear of the submarine to its right rear.
It is a bizarre hunt in which the hunter is located miles in front of the prey. The Shootfish headed straight for a location a few miles to the south - if Enright guessed correctly, the tracks of the Shinano and Shotfish would have met there.
On the submarine's bridge, the night telescope in the lookout sentry stares at the behemoth in the distance, its tall island and sloping chimney rising high from the sea level at the stern.
The Shooting Fish galloped south on the moonlit sea, its bow heaving violently, four engines at full power, and powerful power propelling its slender hull. Foamy sea water splashed out from both sides of the bow and splashed on the face of the lookout.
Enright now needs some luck, and he has been stroking his rosary rosary.
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At 2:56 a.m., his prayers came to fruition again. The Shinano and its escort ship turned again, this time to the left, steadily to the southeast, and straight into the wheelhouse of the Shooting Fish.
The world's newest and largest aircraft carrier is delivering itself to the Shooter Fish like a well-wrapped gift.
After 8 minutes of turning left on the Shinano, the distance between the two sides was reduced to 12,000 yards, and Enright ordered the Shootfish to dive.
The lookout post jumped into the conning tower first, followed by the captain, and the dive siren sounded throughout the boat ("Ahhh A sailor jerked the rope, closed the hatch, and turned the handwheel 6 times to lock it.
The Shootfish dived to a depth of 60 feet. Enright raised the No. 2 periscope for night and pointed it at the target. He pressed the crosshairs on the Shinano and whispered to himself, "Come on, my dear, don't run." ”
The submarine sneaked westward and quietly maneuvered to an ideal firing position: between 1,000 and 2,000 yards directly on the side of the carrier, at which point the Shinano would be exposed to the torpedoes of the Fish with the maximum ejection.
Schematically, in fact, the "Shinano" did not carry aircraft on it.
Enright raised the night periscope several times for a quick look, determining the course and speed of the target. He told the front torpedo group, preparing a salvo of six mines. The torpedo depth was set to 10 feet, leaving room for a possible risk of submersible depth.
Enright raised the night periscope again and gripped the periscope handle tightly. The Shinano gets bigger and bigger in the circular shot, and its moonlit superstructure and characteristic sloping chimney are clearly displayed in front of the Enright.
It is indeed different from any ship in the identification manual. Maybe this is an old aircraft carrier that has been completely rebuilt? He grabbed a pencil and drew a sketch of the enemy ship on a piece of scratch paper.
Then Enright saw a flash of light on the bridge, apparently from an enemy escort destroyer. He turned the night periscope until he found the destroyer, and nervously found that it was heading directly towards the Shootfish at high speed.
Enright now faces the most important decision of his naval career. If the Shotfish is discovered, he will need to urgently dive and avoid depth charge attacks. But then he would be out of the attack position until the Shinano was safely out of range.
But it looks unlikely that the periscope will be spotted. So Enright asked his sonarist: Is the destroyer using sonar to distance it? No, he replied - no bang. Everything depends on this question, so Enright needs to confirm this answer again.
"Scanlon," he shouted, "look at me and tell me if the destroyer is thumping." Scanlon checked all possible frequencies before turning to Enright and repeating his answer: No.
The captain directed the submarine to a few more feet, and the bottom of the boat reached a depth of 62 feet. If the destroyer had driven directly overhead, which seemed likely, then the bottom of the ship would have driven 10 feet above the Shooterfish's top periscope mount.
Enright did not dare to raise the periscope now, and he and a few conning tower personnel who were so nervous that they sweated could only listen quietly to the enemy ship approaching. The passive listening directional instrument confirmed that it was heading straight for the submarine.
The roar of the warship's engines grew louder and louder, followed by the whirring of the propellers. These rhythmic sounds are getting bigger and bigger. "It passed over its head like a locomotive," Enright wrote, "and the whole submarine was shaken to shak." ”
Then it just drove and the sound started to get quieter. The Japanese did not drop depth charges and, apparently, they knew nothing about the submarines lurking beneath their ships.
Six thunder salvos
Enright raised the night periscope again and aimed the crosshair at the huge gray ship island of the Shinano in the moonlight. "Aim! Eccentric," he shouted, "prepare ... Torpedo No. 1 launched! ”
There was a low sizzle in the bow, and when the first torpedo was fired from the launch tube, the submarine retreated under the action of reverse thrust. In the periscope, Enright saw the torpedo's track heading straight for the target, "Fast, straight, everything is normal." ”
8 seconds later: "Torpedo No. 2 fired." So another stream of compressed air shot out, and the "Shooting Fish" "shook as if it had been hit by a whale." After that, the third and fourth torpedoes were fired at intervals of 8 seconds. The track tracking team immediately started work, and the Shotfish vibrated again as the fifth and sixth torpedoes broke out of the tube.
6 torpedoes were fired at a 150 ° fan, which meant that 4 aiming points were directed at "Shinano", 1 aimed at the front of the bow and 1 at the rear of the stern. This is a requirement of the Battle Doctrine for attacking large, high-value targets – to allow some margin to ensure that at least one torpedo hits even if the TDC data is missolved.
But this time, the "Shooting Fish" is almost impossible to miss. It was directly on the side of the 872-foot-long carrier, close to a torpedo attack: 1400 yards. It's like shooting at a wide side wall of a warehouse.
The torpedo rushed towards the target, and time passed second by second. The atmosphere in the conning tower became tense. Enright always pointed the circular field of view of the periscope at the Shinano. When the countdown to the first torpedo reached 0, he worried that he must have missed the shot, or that it was a dud.
But then, "I saw through the lens that a huge fireball exploded near the stern of the target ship." Then the sound of the first torpedo hitting was heard in the water. Then the Shootfish felt the shock wave of the explosion of 680 pounds of aluminum-and-aluminum." Enright cheered, and he continued to observe with his periscope for 8 seconds and saw the second fireball, located 50 yards in front of the first.
Enright spun his periscope and saw a destroyer coming towards the Shootfish. He patted the handle on the periscope shaft and ordered the periscope to be lowered, and the ballast tank flooded to avoid depth charges. The submarine dives at a steep angle. The Shootfish dived all the way down 400 feet before stopping.
Depth charges arrived as promised: the piercing explosion was deafening and frightening, but not very close. Enright estimates that the most recent explosions were 300 yards away. The Japanese seem to be throwing bombs indiscriminately. After 15 minutes of scattered random "pepper noodles", they gave up fighting back. The submarine's sonar listened as the destroyer left in a southwesterly direction.
For the next three hours, the Shooting Fish dived slowly and silently underwater.
After returning to where he felt his target sinking, Enright directed the submarine back to periscope depth. It was 6:10 a.m. He raised his periscope and scanned the surrounding sea horizon, only to find that there was nothing above the sea.
It was a sunny morning with a gentle breeze on the sea. The Shootfish dived underwater again and stayed all day until 5:22 p.m. before resurfacing at 5:22 p.m., sending back exciting news to Pearl Harbor: it had torpedoes on an enemy aircraft carrier.
The shortest-lived maiden voyage
As the torpedo of the Shotfish hit the starboard side of his ship, Daisaku Abe was about to give the order to turn to the right again.
The first shot landed in front of the stern, about 10 feet below the waterline, stirring up a column of orange-red fire. Then, three hits followed, and three pillars of fire rose into the sky, each in front of the previous one.
The explosion flooded three deck cabins, including three boiler cabins, and killed dozens of sailors sleeping in bunks. The fuel line caught fire and one of the oil grooves cracked. The damage pipe team quickly grabbed the faucet to extinguish the fire, but it was still unable to stop the flame from spreading to the adjacent area.
Hundreds of stretchers were carried to the ambulance, and the medical staff quickly became busy. Just a few minutes after the hit, the Shinano tilted 10° to the right.
Like its quasi-sister ships, the Yamato and Musashi, the supercarrier was built to withstand torpedoes.
A month ago, in the Sibuyan Sea, the "Musashi" withstood almost 20 torpedoes before sinking.
Abe was a little surprised that the Shinano was tilting to the right so quickly, but he felt that this tilt could be corrected by injecting water on the opposite side, and he was confident that he would be able to keep the warship floating on the sea as long as it was no longer hit.
Worried about the imagined wolves of the submarine, the captain spoke to the engine room on the phone and told the technicians that he needed achievable speed per section to get out of the submarine-infested area. So the "Shinano" and the destroyer did not stop and continued to move forward at an undiminished speed.
In the passageways around the minefield in the lower part of the hull, watertight doors, pipes and vents emitted a terrifyingly sharp hiss. This is the sound of compressed air being squeezed out of the waterproof seal, and it is the tons of seawater that are inexorably pouring in from the breaches in the ship's hull.
"As we worked, we could hear the metal plate crunching under at least 100 tons of pressure," one crew member recalled, "and the rivets began to shake and looked like they could burst out of the hole at any moment." ”
Seawater sprays out from the breach in the watertight door gasket. Ducts and ventilation pipes also burst.
The powerful crew of the Shinano drove the giant ship forward at a speed of more than 20 knots, but indirectly sucked thousands of tons of Pacific water into the right side of the hull. Even after the left protrusion was filled with 3,000 tons of seawater, the Shinano's rightward tilt continued to intensify. By the time the tilt reached 15°, the sailors already had to hold on to the starboard bulkhead to stand.
The speed of the Shinano gradually dropped to 10 knots. The flood and fire spread unstoppably, and the pumping station was about to fail.
Hundreds of officers and men who had been ordered to hold their posts were trapped behind jammed hatches and deformed bulkheads, and they were certain to die if the sea water poured into their cabins.
Only then did Daisaku Abe realize that the Shinano was desperately trying to survive, and he sent a distress signal to Yokohama, and then directed the battered warship to turn north, trying to run aground on the nearest island.
The first rays of dawn have risen on the eastern horizon, and the moon has tilted to the west. The wounded aircraft carrier hobbled north, three destroyers closely guarding it. Its huge superstructure and chimney tilted to the right like a drunkard, and billowing smoke followed and drifted away with the wind.
At 7 a.m., its turbine came to a halt due to a lack of steam. The Shinano was paralyzed on the sea, and under the impact of the waves, the ship's right-hand tilt increased a little with each roll of the hull. Abe ordered two destroyers, the Hamakaze and the Isokaze, to tow the 65,000-ton aircraft carrier, but this was simply impossible. The effort ended with a broken steel cable.
Abe refused to give the abandonment order, and hundreds of crew members paid with their lives. People who escaped from the flooded area under the ship poured onto the hangar deck and flight deck. Discipline is about to collapse, at least in parts of the ship. The sailors panicked and jumped into the sea without orders.
At 9:30, the Shinano slowly and unstoppably overturned to the right. Seawater poured into the main elevator shaft on the flight deck, knocking the sailors to the ground and throwing them into hangars.
When the chimney submerged, dozens of people on the surface of the sea were swallowed into the mouth of its black hole. By the time Abe finally ordered to abandon the ship, many crew members had already jumped into the sea, and for others it was too late.
Half a mile around the overturned beast was full of escapees climbing on the wreckage waiting for the escort destroyer to rescue.
Abe Daisaku had no intention of surviving, and a group of military bureaucrats decided to die with him. They climbed along the heavily inclined flight deck to the bow of the ship, knowing that this would be the last place where the warship would sink into the sea.
Schematic diagram, in fact, when the "Shinano" sank, the "shooting fish" had already slipped away.
When the stern of the ship was submerged, the warship began to turn around again, restoring its balance on the left and right sides. Its bow was lifted completely off the surface of the sea, raised high, and the flight deck was almost vertical. When sea water poured in from the stern, the Shinano remained in this position for a while, seemingly motionless.
Inside the hull, however, there was the sound of explosions, the sizzling of air extrusion, and the collision of heavy equipment and chunks of wreckage falling along the axis of the hull after loosening. It slowly sank into the water until the sea finally engulfed its golden sixteen-petal chrysanthemum coat of arms.
Abe sank into the abyss along with 1,400 other crew members.
Thus came to an end on the maiden voyage of the "Shinano."
Questioning and acknowledgment
On 15 December, the Shooter returned to Guam, but Joe Enright was met with skepticism about his sinking results. Naval intelligence was completely unaware of the ship's existence, and his description of the target superstructure and inclined chimney was not compatible with any of the aircraft carriers known in the Japanese fleet.
On 28 November, the Pacific Monitoring Post intercepted a Japanese telegram and quickly deciphered it: "Shinano sinks. There is no record of Japanese ships with this name, but Shinano is the name of a major river northeast of the island of Honshu. According to the Japanese Navy's fixed ship naming tradition, this designation means that the target could be a cruiser. Based on this, Lockwood was inclined to assume that the Shooter was sinking a heavy cruiser of unknown class, possibly a completely rebuilt old ship.
But Enright was sure he had sunk an aircraft carrier and produced the pencil sketch he had drawn while observing the Shinano through the periscope to support his point. Pearl Harbor's analysts had to agree: the detailed sketch was indeed of an aircraft carrier.
At the same time, someone in the Pacific Submarine Command pointed out that "Shinano" is also an ancient name in Japan's Nagano region, which means that it may also be the name of an aircraft carrier. In this way, Lockwood determined that the Jetfish sank a 28,000-ton Flying Eagle-class aircraft carrier.
It was not until after the war that the whole truth emerged.
Interrogations by the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey proved that the Shotfish sank a 65,000-ton aircraft carrier, making it the highest-tonnage submarine sunk in a single patrol.
The humble Enright always stressed that he was just lucky, and the blind cat ran into a dead rat, allowing the Zigzag "Shinano" to crash into his shooting window. Indeed, fate handed over victory to the "Shooting Fish". But Enright did play his cards flawlessly, for which he received the Navy Cross.
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