In the 1960s and 1970s, a wave of anti-colonialism and anti-oppression surged around the world. During this period, the colonies of many Western powers became independent, established new regimes, and established independent sovereign states.
However, in South America, there is a country that has refused to break away from the rule of its former suzerainty and claims to remain loyal. In the end, its suzerainty paid a price of 3.5 billion to finally promote the country's independence.
So, where is this country? And why are they unwilling to be independent?
A rich colony in the north of South America
Spreading out the map of South America, on the northeastern edge of the continent, there is a coastal country with an area of 165,000 square kilometers , Suriname. This is the country that has received huge break-up fees to reluctantly agree to independence.
Suriname, before independence, belonged to the Dutch colony, which was then called Dutch Guiana. To its western part is the former British and now independent Cooperative Republic of Guyana; To its west is French Guiana, which is still part of French territory.
A Guyana is divided into three pieces, which have been or are being ruled by the British, the Netherlands, and the French. This area is also strange enough.
At the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Europe ushered in the Age of Discovery, and Central America, the Caribbean and South America were discovered by Europeans. Subsequently, Europeans began to colonize these places, and Suriname was also in this period, after several changes of hands, under the administration of the Netherlands.
Suriname's climate is ideal for growing sugar cane, which is an important raw material for the production of rum and is hugely profitable. In order to accelerate the expansion of plantations, the Dutch brought in a large number of black slaves from Africa, constituting one of the sources of later African-American South Americans.
Some black slaves could not stand the harsh oppression of the plantation owners, and hid in the primeval forest and mixed with the local indigenous Indians, forming a new nation of "jungle blacks". This ethnic group accounts for one-tenth of Suriname's total population.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, slavery was abolished in European countries. The Dutch authorities, who ruled Suriname, began to import indentured labor from all over the world. At that time, Suriname was like a "small United Nations", where people of different colors and nationalities multiplied.
As of now, Suriname's Population of Indian Descent accounts for one-third of the country's population, and the Population of Indonesian Descent accounts for fifteen percent. In addition, about one percent of the Chinese live in Suriname.
After World War II, Suriname gained autonomy and began a twenty-year road to "independence.".
Reluctantly on the road to "being independent"
After the war, Suriname's suzerainty, the Netherlands, was greatly reduced to an ordinary small European country. Former Dutch colonies around the world embarked on the path to independence.
In view of the domestic situation and foreign environment at that time, the Netherlands did not intend to forcibly retain these colonies, and even did not have the idea of establishing a "Dutch Federation". As a result, Indonesia, the Gold Coast and other places have become independent countries.
When it was Suriname's turn, trouble arose. According to the general process, once the colony became a self-governing field, it would take the step of independence along the water. But Suriname said no.
The reason for this is that Suriname was too comfortable after gaining autonomy in the Netherlands.
The de facto ruler of Suriname, the Governor-General, was elected by the Surinamese themselves. In addition, Surinamese also enjoy a lot of super-standard treatment, such as Surinamese who obtain Dutch citizenship at birth, do not have to pay taxes to the Netherlands, and do not have enough money to spend the Netherlands to pay subsidies.
Driven by such a policy, the standard of living of Surinamese at that time was not much worse than that of the Dutch natives. Many people can maintain a good life even without labor, under such conditions, who is willing to be independent?
Suriname has thus become a heart disease of the Netherlands, and has also become a heavy burden on the shoulders of the Netherlands. Financial subsidies to Suriname account for a significant portion of government expenditures without any benefit. Internationally, the Netherlands also bore the bad reputation of the colonizers.
This continued for two decades, until the emergence of Genk Aaron, the leader of the Surinamese National Party, in 1973, which gave hope to the Dutch government. Genk Aaron campaigned for independence. The slogan excites the Dutch government.
The Dutch government allocated significant resources to ensure that Genk Aaron succeeded in becoming the leader of Suriname, and then began the Surinamese independence negotiations.
Who knows, Genk Aaron's Declaration of Independence is just talk, and it is not intended to be implemented at all.
To stymie the talks, Genk Aaron proposed a sky-high break-up fee of 6.5 billion guilders. Hopefully, the negotiations will be stirred up.
The Dutch government is also anxious, making up its mind that long pain is not as good as short pain, and the upside down is also the determination to make you independent.
After several rounds of "wet market" haggling, Suriname got 3.5 billion and reluctantly became an independent country.
By the time Suriname became independent, the clock had turned to 1975...
Suriname after independence
After Suriname became an independent country, sugarcane remained its important cash crop.
In addition, Suriname was the first country in South America to introduce coffee cultivation, and the coffee industry there also contributed greatly to the country's economy.
Suriname is rich in forest and hydropower resources, with a forest coverage rate of 95 per cent. There are abundant bauxite resources, other minerals are oil, iron, manganese, copper, nickel, platinum, gold and so on. Interestingly, employees working at the Suriname gold mine are paid in gold.
Many of the indigenous Indians of Suriname still maintain a primitive fishing and hunting life. Indians who lived by the river used bows and arrows to shoot fish. According to local customs, real fishermen must shoot the fish with one arrow, otherwise they will not be considered fishermen and will be ridiculed by children.
In 1976, Suriname and the People's Republic of China established diplomatic relations, and the two countries maintained perennial friendly relations. Chinese New Year is an official holiday in Suriname, which also implements a visa-free entry policy for Chinese citizens.
Suriname has a large area of original landscape, architecturally dominated by the Dutch style, but Suriname is not a tourism country in the traditional sense, and tourism revenue accounts for a small proportion of national finances.
In recent years, the Surinamese government has also vigorously developed tourism, introducing various policies to attract the upstarts in the tourism sector , Chinese - to come to tourism consumption.
The distance between China and the Soviet Union of more than 15,000 kilometers is indeed a little farther, but it cannot stop us from roaming the world.