In 2019, French Austral Lands and Seas were inscribed as a UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site and cover the largest archipelagos and islands in the Southern Indian Ocean, namely the Croze, Kelgailão, Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands, as well as about 60 small sub-Antarctic islands with a total area of 670,000 square kilometers. Among them, the uninhabited Croce Islands, the island is well preserved, is a unique place for biological evolution and scientific research.
In 2019, the French Austral Lands and Seas were inscribed by UNESCO as a World Natural Heritage Site.
A secluded corner of the Croce Islands
The Croze Islands are located in the southern part of the Indian Ocean, at latitude 46° S, longitude 50°-52° E, northwest of Kerguelang Island, and the distance between the two is about 1270 km. The Croze Islands are also 2,400 kilometres from the nearest African continent, making it a secluded corner. Similar to the formation of Kelgalang, the Croce Islands were also formed by volcanic eruptions in ancient times and consisted of 20 islands with an area of about 515 square kilometers.
The Croze Islands are located in the southern part of the Indian Ocean, northwest of Kelgaylang Island, and are about 1270 km apart.
The Croze Islands are also 2400 km from the nearest African continent.
It is mainly divided into 5 parts, from east to west are the East Island, Poseidon Island, Penguin Island, Cochon Island and Apotel Islands. Among them, Poseidon Island is the largest island in area, with an area of 150 square kilometers, the specific coordinates are 46 ° 24 ′ south latitude, 51 ° 46 ′ east longitude, about 19 km long in the east-west direction, 14 km long in the north-south direction, and the highest peak is Marion Peak at an altitude of 934 meters. The island's Bay of Angels has an Alfred Fore Geographical Research Base and a weather station to conduct research on marine microbial and atomic energy, and there are 17 researchers stationed on the island.
The Croze Islands are divided into 5 main parts, from east to west are the East Island, Poseidon Island, Penguin Island, Kochon Island and The Apotel Islands.
Poseidon is the largest island in terms of area, at 150 square kilometers
Poseidon is the largest island in terms of area, at 150 square kilometers.
The East Island is the second largest island in the Croze Archipelago, 18 km long, 10 km wide, with an area of 130 km2 and a peak of 1,050 m above sea level, discovered by the French explorer Marien Dalken in 1772, and is the only island in the Croze Archipelago that is free of rats, rabbits and cats, and is uninhabited.
The East Island is the second largest island in the Croze Islands, with a length of 18 km, a width of 10 km and an area of 130 km²
The East Island is the only island in the Croze Islands that is free of rats, rabbits and cats and is uninhabited.
Penguin Island is a small island in the western part of the Croze Islands, also a volcanic island, 4 km long, 2 km wide, with an area of 3 km2 and the highest peak at 340 m above sea level, uninhabited. On the north side of Penguin Island, Kochon Island, with an area of 67 square kilometers, is the third largest island in the Croze Islands, and the highest peak is Richard Foy Peak at an altitude of 770 meters, which is full of sea lion walrus penguins and various seabirds, but is uninhabited.
Penguin Island is a small island in the western part of the Croze Islands, also a volcanic island, 4 km long, 2 km wide and with an area of 3 km2
Kohon Island, with an area of 67 square kilometers, is the third largest island in the Croze Islands, and the highest peak is Richard Foy Peak at 770 meters above sea level.
Kohon Island, with an area of 67 square kilometers, is the third largest island in the Croze Islands, and the highest peak is Richard Foy Peak at 770 meters above sea level
The Apoldor Islands are a group of uninhabited rocky small islands in the northwestern part of the Croce Islands, located in the northeast direction of Kochon Island, consisting of about 31 small islands and rocks, with a total area of about 2 square kilometers, the islands are very steep, the Pierre Peak on the big island, at an altitude of 289 meters, is the highest peak, uninhabited.
The Apotel Islands are a small, uninhabited, rocky group of islands in the northwestern Croze Islands.
The Apotel Islands are a small, uninhabited, rocky group of islands in the northwestern Croze Islands.
The Croze Islands, like Kelgailão, are in a raging westerly drifting zone with high winds and high waves, a cold, wet and stormy climate. Glaciers are found in the center of the island. This makes the island's flora and fauna belong to the Antarctic fauna, vegetation species are single, no tall trees, shrubs, mainly herbaceous bryophytes, but the proportion of flowering plants is very high, such as the local specialty of Kelgail Langelan, is the cruciferous flower plant, rich in potassium and a rich in vitamin C oil, is the former navigator to prevent scurvy is a very important material.
The flora and fauna of the Croce Islands belong to the Antarctic fauna, mainly herbaceous bryophytes, pictured here is the local specialty of Kyrgylang cabbage.
The Croze Islands, like Kelgailão, are in a raging westerly drifting zone with high winds and high waves, a cold, wet and stormy climate.
A paradise for seabirds and king penguins
The Croze Islands existed as a subsidiary island of Madagascar after 1924, but in 1938 France claimed sovereignty over the islands and land south of the 60th parallel and between 136 degrees and 142 degrees of longitude, and changed the islands, including the Croze Islands, into French overseas territories. In 1995, it was formally designated as the French Antarctic Territory, headed by the Secretary of State for overseas departments and overseas territories under the direction of a special high commissioner. At the same time, a special Polar Technology Research Institute has been set up to supervise the research organization and research projects in the area.
This "oasis" in the southern hemisphere is also home to one of the highest densities of birds and marine mammals in the world. The picture shows the king penguin
Of course, this "oasis" in the southern hemisphere is also one of the most densely populated areas of birds and marine mammals in the world, especially the number of king penguins and yellow-nosed albatrosses in the world. Although there are only more than 30 species of these seabirds, the number is as high as tens of millions, such as large petrels, thieves, small sheathed gulls and other scavenger birds that attack the old, weak, sick and the disabled, and look for corpses for a living.
The Croze Islands have the highest number of king penguins and yellow-nosed albatrosses in the world
Every year during the southern hemisphere summer, many elephant seals and king penguins come to the Croze Islands in search of mates and breed their offspring.
In addition to seabirds, every summer in the southern hemisphere, there are many elephant seals and king penguins on the Croce Islands to find mates and breed, after all, in the cold sea of sub-Antarctica, it is rare to have a non-frozen beach, so the originally empty beach and the entrance to the creek are often crowded with these distant marine life. Moreover, the sea where the Croze Islands are located is also the confluence of westerly drifting and the Warm Madagascar Current heading south from the warm Indian Ocean, and is rich in nutrients.
The seas on which the Croce Islands are located are also the confluence of westerly drifting and the Warm Madagascar Current heading south from the warm Indian Ocean, and are rich in nutrients.
The Bay of Angels on The Island of Poseción houses the Alfred Fore Geographical Research Base and a weather station for marine microbial and atomic energy research.
These nutrients nourish a large number of plankton such as cyanobacteria and krill, which in turn become the food for many marine fish, such as squid, squid, lanternfish, and these tropical fish provide food sources for many king penguins. It is estimated that half of the world's 2.2 million pairs of king penguins live in the Croze Islands.
The difference between king penguins and emperor penguins
Here is an additional extension of the king penguin and the emperor penguin to avoid confusion. In the 18th century, explorers who arrived in the sub-Antarctic region discovered a penguin of the largest size, walking with a straight chest and a very imposing chest, so they named it "King[King]", which means that this is the largest penguin. But unexpectedly, 60 years later, explorers who went deep into the Antarctic continent found penguins larger than the king penguins, so they were forced to "King" already have a famous flower, so they named the "Emperor [Emperor]" penguin, which is the emperor penguin.
The penguin, which is larger than the king penguin, was forced to have a master because "King" already had a famous flower, so it was named "Emperor [Emperor]" penguin.
King penguins have a wide range of distribution, mainly living in Antarctica and sub-Antarctic islands, such as in the Croze Islands, Falkland Islands and other places.
Although the king penguin and the emperor penguin are very similar in appearance, the orange "blush" on both sides of their faces is very different, the orange hair of the king penguin is very bright, and the emperor penguin is much lighter. In addition, the habitat is also very different, such as the king penguin has a wide range of distribution, mainly living in Antarctica and sub-Antarctic near the islands, such as in the Croze Islands, the Falkland Islands and other places, these places are the confluence of cold and warm currents, food is more abundant; the emperor penguin is a smaller distribution range, mainly living in the cold Antarctica.
Emperor penguins have a smaller range and live mainly in the cold antarctica. The image is quoted from the Xinhua News Agency satellite
The BBC documentary saw hundreds of emperor penguins snuggled together in the snow and ice for warmth, fending off the minus 70°C cold with fat and hardy feathers.
So we often see hundreds of emperor penguins snuggling together in the ice and snow in the animal world or in the BBC documentary to keep warm, closed eyes and do not eat or drink, occasionally eat some snow to replenish water, rely on thick fat and hardy feathers to resist the cold of minus 70 ° C, protect themselves and incubate eggs, the scene is spectacular and shocking. Because the king penguin is not as harsh as the emperor penguin's Antarctic inland, it is usually the king penguin couple who take turns to stand guard, and the cycle of about one to two weeks alternates to incubate eggs.
A huge colony of king penguins on the Croze Islands
Every winter, king penguins swim to the sea nearly 500 kilometers away to feed, and marine life such as squid, fish and shrimp are the food they rely on.
The king penguin's cubs resemble very large mouthed kiwis.
Every winter, king penguins swim nearly 500 kilometers away to forage for food, but now with global warming, rising temperatures have caused marine life such as squid, fish and shrimp to migrate closer to Antarctica, which will increase the distance for king penguins to feed. This causes king penguin pups to wait more than a week to get food, a situation that threatens the cubs' chances of growing into adult penguins and breeding.
Far from Australia and the African continent, far from the commercial shipping lanes, the Croce Islands have finally become one of the few places where humans have set foot.
100 years ago, there were 1.5 billion people living on The Planet, and today more than 7.7 billion people are crowded on our fragile planet. Nevertheless, the Croce Islands, far from Australia and the African continent, far from commercial shipping lanes, have ended up being one of the few places where humans have set foot. On this barbaric archipelago, the truest display of our planet is the most authentic appearance, this paradise of walrus and seal penguins, may always be a pure land.
Last issue in review: Kyrgylang Island: One of the hardest islands in the world to reach, a place to end up alone
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